Investigation of the Effects of JP-4 Addition to Biodiesel-Diesel Blends on the Performance Characteristics of a Diesel Engine

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.

2 Aerospace and Energy Conversion Research Center, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystems, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

Abstract

In this study, the effects of JP-4-biodiesel-diesel blends and engine operating parameters on the performance characteristics of a diesel engine were investigated. The experimental tests were performed on a four-cylinder DI diesel engine. The Mixture-RSM method was applied to develop the mathematical models based on the experimental data. The results showed that the fitted models could be properly applied to predict the performance characteristics of the engine. According to the results, the brake power and torque decreased with increasing the biodiesel amount in the fuel mixture due to the lower energy content and higher viscosity of biodiesel than diesel fuel No.2. However, the brake power and torque increased slightly with increasing JP-4 in the fuel blend. The results also indicated that the BSFC increased with the higher proportion of biodiesel in the mixture at all engine speeds. The results indicated that there was no considerable difference in BSFC values while JP-4 was added to the fuel mixture, especially at higher engine speeds. Moreover, the difference of brake power values for fuel blends included biodiesel and neat diesel decreases at higher engine speeds due to the positive role of oxygen content in the molecular structure of biodiesel. Based on the results, brake power and torque increased at the higher engine load as a result of higher temperatures and better combustion conditions. Moreover, JP-4 caused an improvement in brake thermal efficiency compared to biodiesel, especially at lower and medium engine speeds. Generally, it is indicated that the application of JP-4 can improve engine performance.

Keywords

Main Subjects


1.     Özener, O., Yüksek, L., Ergenç, A.T. and Özkan, M., "Effects of soybean biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics", Fuel, Vol. 115, (2014), 875-883. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.10.081).

2.     Agarwal, A.K., Park, S., Dhar, A., Lee, C.S., Park, S., Gupta, T. and Gupta, N.K., "Review of experimental and computational studies on spray, combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of biodiesel fueled engines", Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 140, (2018), 120801-120830. (https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4040584).

3.     Patel, C., Hwang, J., Chandra, K., Agarwal, R.A., Bae, C., Gupta, T. and Agarwal, A.K., "In-cylinder spray and combustion investigations in a heavy-duty optical engine fueled with waste cooking oil, Jatropha, and Karanja biodiesels", Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 141, (2018), 012201-012212. (https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4040579).

4.     Efe, Ş., Akif Ceviz, M.A. and Temur, H., "Comparative engine characteristics of biodiesels from hazelnut, corn, soybean, canola and sunflower oils on DI diesel engine", Renewable Energy, Vol. 119, (2018), 142-151. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.12.011).

5.     Seraç, M.R., Aydın, S., Yılmaz, A. and Şevik, S., "Evaluation of comparative combustion, performance, and emission of soybean-based alternative biodiesel fuel blends in a CI engine", Renewable Energy, (2019), In Press. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.10.090).

6.     Ramalingam, S., Rajendran, S., Ganesan, P. and Govindasamy, M., "Effect of operating parameters and antioxidant additives with biodiesels to improve the performance and reducing the emissions in a compression ignition engine–A review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 81, (2018), 775-788. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.08.026).

7.     Cican, G., Plesu, V., Deaconu, M., Toma, A. and Cretu, M., "Performances and emissions evaluation of a microturbojet engine running on biodiesel blends", Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 141, (2019), 072003-072014. (https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4042718).

8.     Lee, J. and Bae, C., "Application of JP-8 in a heavy duty diesel engine", Fuel, Vol. 90, (2011), 1762-1770. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.01.032).

9.     Lee, J., Oh, H. and Bae, C., "Combustion process of JP-8 and fossil diesel fuel in a heavy duty diesel engine using two-color thermometry", Fuel, Vol. 102, (2012), 264-273. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.07.029).

10.   Lee, J., Lee, J., Chu, S., Choi, H. and Min, K., "Emission reduction potential in a light-duty diesel engine fueled by JP-8", Energy, Vol. 89, (2015), 92-99. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.07.060).

11.   Pickett, L. and Hoogterp, L., "Fundamental spray and combustion measurements of JP-8 at diesel conditions", SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles, Vol. 1, No. 1, (2009), 108-118. (https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-1083).

12.   Korres, D.M., Karonis, D., Lois, E., Linck, M.B. and Gupta, A.K., "Aviation fuel JP-5 and biodiesel on a diesel engine", Fuel, Vol. 7, (2008), 70-78. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2007.04.004).

13.   Kouremenos, D.A., Rakopoulos, C.D. and Hountalas, D.T., "Experimental investigation of the performance and exhaust emissions of a swirl chamber diesel engine using JP‐8 aviation fuel", International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 21, (1998), 1173-1185. (https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-114X(19971010)21:123.0.CO;2-%23).

14.   Arkoudeas, P., Kalligeros, S., Zannikos, F., Anastopoulos, G., Karonis, D., Korres, D. and Lois, E., "Study of using JP-8 aviation fuel and biodiesel in CI engines", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 44, (2003), 1013-1025. (https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(02)00112-7).

15.   Papagiannakis, R., Kotsiopoulos, P., Hountalas, D. and Yfantis, E., "Single fuel research program comparative results of the use of JP-8 aviation fuel versus diesel fuel on a direct injection and indirect injection diesel engine", SAE Technical Paper, Vol. 2006, No. 01, (2006), 1673-1688. (https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-1673).

16.   Gowdagiri, S., Cesari, X.M., Huang, M. and Oehlschlaeger, M.A., "A diesel engine study of conventional and alternative diesel and jet fuels: Ignition and emissions characteristics", Fuel, Vol. 136, (2014), 253-260. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.07.056).

17.   Roy, M.M., Wang, W. and Alawi, M., "Performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled by biodiesel-diesel, biodiesel-diesel-additive and kerosene-biodiesel blends", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 84, (2014), 164-173. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.04.033).

18.   Labeckas, G. and Slavinskas, S., "Combustion phenomenon, performance and emissions of a diesel engine with aviation turbine JP-8 fuel and rapeseed biodiesel blends", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 105, (2015), 216-229. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.07.065).

19.   Bhowmik, S., Panua, R., Debroy, D. and Paul, A., "Artificial neural network prediction of diesel engine performance and emission fueled with diesel-kerosene-ethanol blends: A fuzzy-based optimization", Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 139, (2017), 042201-042210. (https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4035886).

20.   Montgomery, D.C., Design and analysis of experiments, John Wiley & Sons, (2008).

21.   Little, T.M. and Hills, F.J., Agricultural experimentation: Design and analysis, John Wiley & Sons, (1978).

22.   Karabektas, M., "The effects of turbocharger on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel", Renewable Energy, Vol. 34, (2009), 989-993. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2008.08.010).

23.   Utlu, Z. and Koçak, M.S., "The effect of biodiesel fuel obtained from waste frying oil on direct injection diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions", Renewable Energy, Vol. 33, (2008), 1936-1941. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2007.10.006).

24.   Shirneshan, A., Samani, B.H. and Ghobadian, B., "Optimization of biodiesel percentage in fuel mixture and engine operating conditions for diesel engine performance and emission characteristics by Artificial Bees Colony Algorithm", Fuel, Vol. 184, (2016), 518-526. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.06.117).

25.   Aydin, H. and Bayindir, H., "Performance and emission analysis of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine", Renewable Energy, Vol. 35, (2010), 588-592. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2009.08.009).

26.   Canakci, M., Ozsezen, A.N., Arcaklioglu, E. and Erdil, A., "Prediction of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel produced from waste frying palm oil", Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 36, (2009), 9268-9280. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2008.12.005).

27.   Lin, B., Huang, J. and Huang, D., "Experimental study of the effects of vegetable oil methyl ester on DI diesel engine performance characteristics and pollutant emissions", Fuel, Vol. 88, (2009), 1779-1785. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2009.04.006).

28.   Usta, N., "An experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 46, (2005), 2373-2386. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2004.12.002).

29.   Spadaccini, L.J., "Autoignition characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels at elevated temperatures and pressures", Journal of Engineering for Power, Vol. 99, (1977), 83-87. (https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3446256).

30.   Spadaccini, L.J. and Tevelde, J.A., "Autoignition characteristics of aircraft-type fuels", Combustion and Flame, Vol. 46, (1982), 283-300. (https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-2180(82)90022-0).

31.   Tan, P., Hu, Z., Lou, D. and Li, Z., "Exhaust emissions from a light-duty diesel engine with Jatropha biodiesel fuel", Energy, Vol. 39, (2012), 356-362. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.01.002).

32.   Ramadhas, A., Muraleedharan, C. and Jayaraj, S., "Performance and emission evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl esters of rubber seed oil", Renewable Energy, Vol. 30, (2005), 1789-1800. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2005.01.009).

33.   Ozsezen, A.N., Canakci, M., Turkcan, A. and Sayin, C., "Performance and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with waste palm oil and canola oil methyl esters", Fuel, Vol. 88, (2009), 629-636. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2008.09.023).

34.   Kim, H. and Choi, B., "The effect of biodiesel and bioethanol blended diesel fuel on nanoparticles and exhaust emissions from CRDI diesel engine", Renewable Energy, Vol. 35, (2010), 157-163. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2009.04.008).

35.   Shirneshan, A., Almassi, M., Ghobadian, B. and Najafi, G., "Investigating the effects of biodiesel from waste cooking oil and engine operating conditions on the diesel engine performance by response surface methodology", Iranian Journal of Science and Technology Transactions of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 38, (2014), 289-301. (https://doi.org/DOI: 10.22099/ijstm.2014.2496).

36.   Nedayali, A. and Shirneshan, A., "Experimental study of the effects of biodiesel on the performance of a diesel power generator", Energy & Environment, Vol. 27, (2016), 553-565. (https://doi.org/10.1177/0958305X15627550).

37.   Mistri, G.K., Aggarwal, S.K., Longman, D. and Agarwal, A.K., "Performance and emission investigations of Jatropha and Karanja biodiesels in a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine using endoscopic imaging", Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 138, (2015), 011202-011214. (https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4031317).

38.   Song, J. and Zhang, C., "An experimental study on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with soybean oil methyl ester", Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Vol. 222, (2008), 2487-2496. (https://doi.org/10.1243/09544070JAUTO932).

39.   Blazowski, W.S., The impact of JP-4/JP-8 conversion on aircraft engine exhaust emissions, AFAPL-TR-76-20, Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory, (1976).

40.   Buyukkaya, E., "Effects of biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics", Fuel, Vol. 89, (2010), 3099-3105. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.05.034).

41.   Godiganur, S., Suryanarayana Murthy, C. and Reddy, R.P., "Performance and emission characteristics of a Kirloskar HA394 diesel engine operated on fish oil methyl esters",. Renewable Energy, Vol. 35, (2010), 355-359. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2009.07.007).