Energy, Exergy, and Environmental Analysis and Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed Using Ultrasonic Waves

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering of Biosystem, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

2 Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Methematical Sciences, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.

Abstract

Due to limited oil reserves, the rising world fuel prices and environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels increase the tendency to use alternative fuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol. In this study, the evaluation of energy and exergy flow from seed planting to final production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil was carried out. Biodiesel production from rapeseed was made in three main phases: farm, oil extraction, and industrial biodiesel production. Initially, the input and output variables for rapeseed production were collected through questionnaires from 30 rapeseed farms in Khuzestan province, Iran. Thus, the amount of energy input and output to the field for rapeseed was estimated to be 12826.98 and 22195 MJ/ha, respectively. The highest energy consumption is related to chemical fertilizers with 65 % share of other inputs. Input and output exergy rates were obtained as 3933.494 and 22603.39 MJ/ha, respectively, and the highest exergy consumption related to diesel fuel with 58 % share of other inputs. At the biodiesel production stage, the input energy and output energy were 156.95 MJ and 41.88 MJ, respectively, and the highest amount of electricity consumed was 91.02 MJ. The total amount of exergy in the production of biodiesel and the output exergy was 48.412 MJ and 64.568 MJ, respectively. In this study, the effects of alcohol-to-oil molar ratio, ultrasound power (W), catalyst concentration (w/w %), and the reaction time (min) on methyl ester yield using response surface methodology based on Box Behnken experimental design in the Design Expert software were investigated. Finally, gas emissions were studied at the planting and biodiesel production stages, and the resultsshowed that the highest greenhouse gas emissions at the planting stage were related to chemical fertilizers and alcohol production.

Keywords

Main Subjects


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