Document Type : Review Article

Author

1 Smart Microgrid Research Center, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.

Abstract

Renewable energy provides twenty percent of electricity generation worldwide. Hydroelectric power is the cheapest way to generate electricity today. It is a renewable source of energy and provides almost one-fifth of electricity in the world. Also, it generates electricity using a renewable natural resource and accounting for six percent of worldwide energy supply or about fifteen percent of the world’s electricity. Hydropower is produced in more than 150 countries. Hydropower plant producers provide energy due to moving or falling water. This paper presents and discusses studies on hydroelectric power plant fields, which have been carried out by different investigators. This work aims to study and provide an overview of hydroelectric power plants such as applications, control, operation, modeling and environmental impacts. Also, the hybrid power and efficiency of the hydroelectric power plants has been investigated. The applications of a flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) controller in the power system with the hydroelectric power plants are presented.

Keywords

Main Subjects

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94.   Natarajan, K., "Robust PID controller design for hydroturbines", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 20, No. 3, (Sep. 2005), 661-667. (https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2005.845448).

95.   Chen, Z., Yuan, X., Tian, H. and Ji, B., "Improved gravitational search algorithm for parameter identification of water turbine regulation system", Energy Conversion and Manageement, Vol. 78, (Feb. 2014), 306-315. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman. 2013.10.060).

96.   Xu, B., Wang, F., Chen, D. and Zhang, H., "Hamiltonian modeling of multi-hydro-turbine governing systems with sharing common penstock and dynamic analyses under shock load", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 108, (Jan. 2016), 478-487. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.11.032).

97.   Li, C. and  Zhou, J., "Parameters identification of hydraulic turbine governing system using improved gravitational search algorithm", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 52, No. 1, (Jan. 2011), 374-381. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman. 2010.07.012).

98.   Xu, B., Chen, D., Zhang, H. and Wang, F., "Modeling and stability analysis of a fractional-order Francis hydro-turbine governing system", Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, Vol. 75, (June 2015), 50-61. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chaos.2015.01.025).

99.   Wang, M., Zhang, Y., Ji, T. and Wang, X., "Grey prediction control and extension assessment for turbine governing system", IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 10, No. 11, (Aug. 2016), 2601-2605. (https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-gtd.2015.1028).

100. Wencheng, G. and Jiandong, Y., "Stability performance for primary frequency regulation of hydro-turbine governing system with surge tank", Applied Mathematical Modelling, Vol. 54, (Feb. 2018), 446-466. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2017.09.056).

101. Zhang, H., Chen, D., Xu, B. and Wang, F., "Nonlinear modeling and dynamic analysis of hydro-turbine governing system in the process of load rejection transient", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 90, (Jan. 2015), 128-137. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.11.020).

102. Vezmar, S., Spajić, A., Topić, D., Šljivac, D. and Jozsa, L., "Positive and negative impacts of renewable energy sources", International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Systems, Vol. 5, No. 2, (2014).

103. Gupta, V., Khare, R. and Prasad, V., "Performance evaluation of pelton turbine: A review", Journal of Water, Energy and Environment, No. 13, (July 2013), 28-35. (https://doi.org/10.3126/hn.v13i0.10042).

104. Hosseini, E. and Shahgholian, Gh., "Different types of pitch angle control strategies used in wind turbine system applications", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (JREE), Vol. 4, No. 1, (Winter 2017), 20-35. (https://doi.org/10.30501/jree.2017.70103).

105. Mozafarpoor-Khoshrodi, S.H. and Shahgholian, Gh., "Improvement of perturb and observe method for maximum power point tracking in wind energy conversion system using fuzzy controller", Energy Equipment and Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, (Autumn 2016), 111-122. (https://doi.org/10.22059/EES.2016.23031)

106. Hosseini, E. and Shahgholian, Gh., "Partial- or full-power production in WECS: A survey of control and structural strategies", European Power Electronics and Drives, Vol. 27, No. 3, (Dec. 2017), 125-142. (https://doi.org/10.1080/09398368.2017.1413161).

107. Hosseini, E. and Shahgholian, Gh., "Output power levelling for DFIG wind turbine system using intelligent pitch angle control", Automatika, Vol. 58, No. 4, (2017), 363-374. (https://doi.org/10.1080/00051144.2018.1455017).

108. Kaunda, C.S., Kimambo, C.Z. and Nielsen, T.K., "Hydropower in the context of sustainable energy supply: A review of technologies and challenges", ISRN Renewable Energy, Vol. 2012, (2012), 1-15. (https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/730631).

109. Borkowski, D. and Wegiel, T., "Small hydropower plant with integrated turbine-generators working at variable speed", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 28, No. 2, (June 2013), 452-459. (https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2013.2247605).

110. Ferreira, J.H.I., Camacho, J.R. and Malagoli, J.A., "A contribution to the study of the estimate hydroelectric potential for small hydropower plant", IEEE Latin America Transactions, Vol. 14, No. 7, (July 2016), 3215-3224. (https://doi.org/10.1109/TLA.2016.7587623).

111. Galvis, J.C., Padilha-Feltrin, A. and Yusta Loyo, J.M., "Cost assessment of efficiency losses in hydroelectricplants", Electric Power System Research, Vol. 81, No. 10, (October 2011), 1866-1873. (https://doi.org//10.1016/j.epsr.2011.05.006).

112. Kumar, K.R. and Kulgod, S.P., "Simulation and analysis of energy harvesting from Grey water and rain water in high rises", Proceedings of the IEEE/ICEETS, Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu, India, (April 2016), 856-861. (https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEETS.2016.7583866).

113. Khankari, G. and Kamakar, S., "Combined thermal-hydro power generation: A novel approach of plant capacity addition", International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, (2016), 255-262.

114. Shen, C.L. and Shen, Y.S., "Output filter design for a novel dual-input PV-wind power converter by energy balance principle", Applied Sciences, Vol. 6, (2016), 1-15. (https://doi.org/10.3390/app 6090263).

115. Shahgholian, Gh., Khani, K. and Moazzami, M., "The Impact of DFIG based wind turbines in power system load frequency control with hydro turbine", Dam and Hedroelectric Powerplant, Vol. 1, No. 3, (Winter 2015), 38-51.

116. Heidarpour, F. and Shahgholian, Gh., "Stability improvement of hydraulic turbine regulating system using round-robin scheduling algorithm", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (JREE), Vol. 5, No. 1, (Winter 2018), 1-7. (https://doi.org/10.30501/jree.2018.88584).

117. Singh, V., Kumar, A. and Batish, N., "Simulation and analysis of integrated wind power with small hydroelectric hybrid power system for transient stability", Advanced Research in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, (2014), 2-448.

118. Rahman, A., Saikia, L.C. and Sinha, N., "Load frequency control of a hydro-thermal system under deregulated environment using biogeography-based optimised three-degree-of-freedom integral-derivative controller", IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 9, No. 15, (Nov. 2015), 2284-2293. (https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-gtd.2015.0317).

119. Khodayar, M.E., Abreu, L. and Shahidehpour, M., "Transmission-constrained intrahour coordination of wind and pumped-storage hydro units", IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 7, No. 7, (July 2013), 755-765. (https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-gtd.2012.0272).

120. Hirth, L., "The benefits of flexibility: The value of wind energy with hydropower", Applied Energy, Vol. 181, (Nov. 2016), 210-223. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.07.039).

121. Forouzandehmehr, N., Han, Z. and Zheng, R., "Stochastic dynamic game between hydropower plant and thermal power plant in smart grid networks", IEEE System Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, (March 2016), 88-96. (https://doi.org/10.1109/JSYST.2014.2317555).

122. Motaghi, A., Alizadeh, M. and Abbasian, M., "Reactive power compensation and reducing network transmission losses by optimal placement of parallel and series FACTS devices with fuzzy-evolutionary method", Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology, Vol. 9, No. 35, (Autumn 2019), 27-38.

123. Shahgholian, Gh., Hamidpour, H. and Movahedi, A., "Transient stability promotion by FACTS controller based on adaptive inertia weight particle swarm optimization method", Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 1, (March 2018), 57-70. (https://doi.org/10.15598/aeee.v16i1.2369).

124. Ghaedi, H., Shahgholian, Gh. and Hashemi, M., "Comparison of the effects of two flatness based control methods for STATCOM on improving stability in power systems including DFIG based wind farms", Iranian Electric Industry Journal of Quality and Productivity, Vol. 8, No. 1, (2019), 72-81.

125. Rao, C.S., Nagaraju, S.S. and Raju, P.S., "Automatic generation control of TCPS based hydrothermal system under open market scenario: A fuzzy logic approach", International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 31, No. 7-8, (Sep. 2009), 315-322. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2009. 03.007).

126. Bhatt, P., Ghoshal, S.P. and Roy, R., "Load frequency stabilization by coordinated control of thyristor controlled phase shifters and superconducting magnetic energy storage for three types of interconnected two-area power systems", International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 32, No. 10, (Dec. 2010), 1111-1124. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes. 2010.06.009).

127. Singh, B., Murthy, S.S., Chilipi, R.R., Madishetti, S. and Bhuvaneswari, G., "Static synchronous compensator-variable frequency drive for voltage and frequency control of small-hydro driven self-excited induction generators system", IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Vol. 8, No. 9, (Sep. 2014), 1528-1538. (https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-gtd.2013.0703).

128. Khani, K. and Shahgholian, Gh., "Analysis and optimization of frequency control in isolated microgrid with double-fed induction-generators based wind turbine", Journal of International Council on Electrical Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 1, (Feb. 2019), 24-37. (https://doi.org/10.1080/22348972.2018.1564547).

129. Jafari, A., Shahgholian, Gh. and Zamanifar, M., "Stability analysis of doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine systems using modal analysis", Iranian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 3, (Autumn 2019), 173-189. (In Persian)

130. Keyvani-Boroujeni, B., Shahgholian, Gh. and Fani, B., "A distributed secondary control approach for inverter-dominated microgrids with application to avoiding bifurcation-triggered Instabilities", IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, Early Access Article, (February 2020), 1-8. (https://doi.org/10.1109/JESTPE.2020.2974756).

131. Bisheh, H., Moazzami, M., Fani, B. and Shahgholian, Gh., "A new method for controlling microgrids protection settings with the high penetration of distributed generation", Computational Intelligence in Electrical Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 4, (Winter 2020), 71-90.

132. Carpintero-Renter, M., Santos-Martin, D. and Guerrero, J.M., "Microgrids literature review through a layers structure", Energies, Vol. 12, No. 22, (2019), 1-22. (https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224381).

133. Shahgholian, Gh., Fani, B., Keyvani, B., Karimi, H. and Moazzami, M., "Improve the reactive power sharing by uses to modify droop characteristics in autonomous microgrids", Energy Engineering and Management, Vol. 9, No. 3, (2019), 64-71. (in Persian)

134. Karimi, H., Shahgholian, Gh., Fani, B., Sadeghkhani, I. and Moazzami, M., "A protection strategy for inverter interfaced islanded microgrids with looped configuration", Electrical Engineering, Vol. 101, No. 3, (Sep. 2019), 1059-1073. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00202-019-00841-6).

135. Pham, T.H., Prodan, I., Genon-Catalot, D. and Lefèvre, L., "Economic constrained optimization for power balancing in a dc microgrid: A multi-source elevator system application", International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 118, Article 105753, (June 2020), 1-15. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2019.105753).

136. Sadegheian, M., Fani, B., Sadeghkhani, I. and Shahgholian, Gh., "A local power control scheme for electronically interfaced distributed generators in islanded microgrids", Iranian Electric Industry Journal of Quality and Productivity, Vol. 8, No. 3, (2020), 47-58.

137. Tiomo, D. and Wamkeue, R., "Dynamic modeling and analysis of a micro-hydro power plant for microgrid applications", Proceedings of The IEEE/ CCECE, Edmonton, AB, Canada, (May 2019), 1-6. (https://doi.org/10.1109/CCECE.2019.8861875).

138. Shojaeean, S. and Akrami, H., "Coordination between wind power, hydro storage facility and conventional generating units according to the annual growth load", Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology, Vol. 4, No. 14, (Spring 2013), 31-40.

139. Singh, B. and Bhalla, K.K., "Reduced converter topology for integrated wind and small-hydro energy generation system", IET Renewable Power Generation, Vol. 9, No. 5, (June 2015), 520-529. (https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2014.0235).

140. Ion, C.P. and Marinescu, C., "Autonomous microgrid based on micro hydro power plants", Proceedings of The IEEE/OPTIM, Brasov, Romania, (May 2012), 941-946. (https://doi.org/10.1109/OPTIM.2012.6231918).

141. Gil-González, W., DaniloMontoya, O. and Garces, A., "Modeling and control of a small hydro-power plant for a DC microgrid", Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 180, Article 106104, (March 2020), 1-6. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2019.106104).