Document Type: Research Article


1 Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P. O. Box: 11155-4563, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P. O. Box: 14515-775, Tehran, Iran.


Carbon-dioxide Capture and Utilization (CCU) technology is an efficient process in the portfolio of greenhouse gas reduction approaches and is programmed to mitigate global warming. Given that the prime intention of CCU technologies is to prevent CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, it remains to be seen if these approaches cause other environmental impacts and consequences. Therefore, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach was considered to account for all environmental aspects, in addition to the emission of greenhouse gases. In this study, the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) methodology was employed to quantify the environmental impacts of indirect carbonation of Red Mud (RM), a waste byproduct of alumina production line in Jajarm Alumina Plant, Iran by CO2 exhausted from the plant stacks based on International Organization for Standardizations (ISO) of ISO 14040 and ISO 14044. The results confirmed the reduction of CO2 emission by 82 %. The study of carbon footprint based on ISO 14064 under the criterion of PAS 2050 revealed CO2 emission equivalent to 2.33 kg/ ton RM, proving that CCU managed to mitigate the CO2 emission by 93 % compared to the conventional technology employed in Jajarm Plant, which produced around 34 kg CO2 per 1 ton RM. Furthermore, the economic evaluation of the process brought about 243 $/ton RM in profit via the sales of products including silica, aluminum, hematite, and calcium carbonate. The outcomes of the present study highlight that the intended CCU technology is a practicable approach for large-scale applications.


Main Subjects

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