Application of Phase Change Material (PCM) for Cooling Load Reduction in Lightweight and Heavyweight Buildings: Case Study of a High Cooling Load Region of Iran

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

Department of Mechanical & Marine Engineering, Chabahar Maritime University, 99717-56499, Chabahar, Iran

Abstract

The application of phase change material (PCM) for energy conservation purposes in the residential buildings was investigated in the present study. Two types of building in terms of materials as the lightweight building (LWB) and heavyweight building (HWB) located in a high cooling load demanding region of Iran were considered for the study. Different types of PCM from organic and inorganic categories were examined to determine the most appropriate type of the buildings in terms of indoor air conditions and yearly required cooling load. The buildings in the existing form and with an added layer of PCM were simulated hourly, and indoor air conditions and yearly cooling loads were determined. EnergyPlus software was used for this purpose. The study revealed that the LWB with the added layer of calcium chloride hex hydrate (CCH) had the minimum yearly required cooling load with about 39.8 GJ, and 25.7% reduction in the yearly cooling load was observed and the HWB had the best performance in terms of yearly required cooling load with the added n-eicosone (N.EIC) layer with about 28.8 GJ, which is a 47.1% reduction in the yearly cooling load. After determining the proper PCM for the buildings, the recommended PCM was planned to be positioned in the external layer, mid-layer, and internal layer to examine the position effect on the yearly required cooling load

Keywords

Main Subjects


1.     International energy agency (IEA), World energy outlook, (2010).

2.     Huang, Y., "Drivers of rising global energy demand: The importance of spatial lag and error dependence", Energy, Vol. 76(C), (2014), 254-263. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy. 2014.07.093).

3.     U.S. energy information administration, https://www.eia.gov, (2009).

4.     EU action against climate change: The european climate change programme, Luxembourg, (2006).

5.     International atomic energy agency, https://www-pub.iaea.org, (2016).

6.     Zarei, M. and Khademi Zare, H., "Energy consumption modeling in residential buildings", International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development, Vol. 3, No. 1, (2013), 35-38.

7.     Baetens, R., Jelle, B.P. and Gustavsen, A., "Phase change materials for building applications: A state-of-the-art review", Energy and Buildings, Vol. 42, No. 9, (2010), 1361-1368. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.03.026).

8.     Sakulich, A.R. and Bentz, D.P., "Increasing the service life of bridge decks by incorporating phase change materials to reduce freeze-thaw cycles", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 8, (2011), 1034-1042.

9.     Raoux, S. and Wuttig, M., Phase change materials: Science and applications", Springer, (2009).

10.   Zalba, B., Marı́n, J.M., Cabeza, L.F. and Mehling, H., "Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: Materials, heat transfer analysis and applications", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 23, No. 3, (2003), 251-283. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S1359-4311(02)00192-8).

11.   Alawadhi, E.M., "Thermal analysis of a building brick containing phase change material, energy and buildings, Vol. 40, (2008), 351-357. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.03.001).

12.   Tomas, V.T., Gaspar, U.L., Diego, A.V., Fabien, R. and Rodrigo, P., "Feasibility study of the application of a coling energy sorage system in a chiller plant of an office building located in Santiago, Chile". (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2019.01.028).

13.   Ahmad, M., Bontemps, A., Salle´e, H. and Quenard, D., "Thermal testing and numerical simulation of a prototype cell using light wallboards coupling vacuum isolation panels and phase change material", Energy and Buildings, Vol. 38, (2006) ,673-681. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.11.002).

14.   Gracia, A.D., Navarro, L., Castell, A., Ruiz-Pardob, L., lvarez, S. and Cabeza, L.F., "Thermal analysis of a ventilated facade with PCM for cooling applications", Energy and Buildings, Vol. 65, (2013), 508-515. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2013.06.032).

15.   Nelson, S., Christoph, F.R. and Ali, H., "Simulation-based analysis of the use of PCM-wallboards to reduce cooling energy demand and peak-loads in low-rise residential heavyweight buildings in Kuwait", Building Simulation, Vol. 10, No. 4, (2017), 481-495. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-017-0347-2).

16.   Solgi, E., Fayaz, R., MohammadKari, B., "Cooling load reduction in office buildings of hot-arid climate, combining phase change materials and night purge ventilation", Renewable Energy, Vol. 85, (2016), 725-731. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.renene.2015.07.028).

17.   Marina, P., Saffari, M., Gracia, A.D., Zhud, X., Farid, M.M., Cabeza, L.F. and Ushaka, S., "Energy savings due to the use of PCM for relocatable lightweight buildings passive heating and cooling in different weather conditions", Energy and Buildings, Vol. 129, (2016), 274-283. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild. 2016.08.007).

18.   Castell, A. Martorell, I., Medrano, M., Perez, G. and Cabeza, L.F., "Experimental study of using PCM in brick constructive solutions for passive cooling", Energy and Buildings, Vol. 42, (2010), 534-540. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.10.022).

19.   Guarino, F., Athienitis, A., Cellura, M. and Bastien, D., "PCM thermal storage design in buildings: Experimental studies and applications to solaria in cold climates", Applied Energy, Vol. 185, (2017), 95-106. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy. 2016.10.046).

20.   Principi, P. and Fioretti, R., "Thermal analysis of the application of PCM and low emissivity coating in hollow bricks", Energy and Buildings, Vol. 51, (2012), 131-142. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.04.022).

21.   Crawley, D.B., Hand, J.W., Kummert, M. and Griffith, B.T., "Contrasting the capabilities of building energy performance simulation programs", Building and Environment, Vol. 43, (2008), 661-673. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.10. 027).

22.   AL-Saadi, S.N. and Zhai, Z.J., "Modeling phase change materials embedded in building enclosure: A review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 21, (2013), 659-673. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.01.024).

23.   EnergyPlus, https://energyplus.net.

24.   Transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS), http://www.trnsys.com.

25.   EnergyPlus weather (EPW) data sources, https://energyplus.net/weather/sources.

26.   Li, C. and Wangn, R.Z., "Building integrated energy storage opportunities in China", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, (2012), 6191-6211. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.rser.2012.06.034).

27.   Kosny, J., Yarbrough, D.W., Miller, W., Petrie, T., Childs, P., Syed, A.M. and Leuthold, D., "Thermal performance of PCM-enhanced building envelope systems", ASHRAE, (2007).

28.   ASHRAE, ASHRAE fundamentals, Atlanta, USA, ASHRAE, (2013).

29.   ASHRAE. ASHRAE standard 55-2004, Atlanta, USA, ASHRAE, (2004).