Frequency Control of Islanded Microgrids Based on Fuzzy Cooperative and Influence of STATCOM on Frequency of Microgrids

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Department of Electrical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran

Abstract

In this paper, the effect of a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) influence on the frequency of islanded microgrids based on frequency control using fuzzy cooperative control is investigated. To achieve fast frequency control, instantaneous power balance between generation and consumption is inevitable, and it can be supplied through energy storage systems such as battery with a proper frequency control method. Besides, the frequency control of islanded microgrids could be studied under different circumstances, where one aspect analyzed is added to a flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) device, such as STATCOM, in the microgrids. Although STATCOM is charged with improving the voltage profile, it can affect frequency stability by adjusting the voltage very quickly. Due to the importance of refining frequency stability, two controller methods are compared: a classic PI controller and a fuzzy PID controller. Accordingly, the performance of STATCOM is evaluated via two scenarios. Based on simulation results, by applying the fuzzy PID controller to the microgrid, STATCOM can reach the nominal frequency. Moreover, with greater validation and investigation of this topic, this device could be an agreeable alternative to the battery energy storage system (BESS).

Keywords

Main Subjects


1.     Gargari, M.H., Sadrameli, S.M. and Taherkhani, M., "Investigating the batch and continuous transesterification of linseed oil by using a alkaline heterogeneous catalyst in a packed bed reactor", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (JREE), Vol. 4, No. 2&3, (2017), 1-9.

2.     Tahani, M., Servati, P., Hajinezhad, A., Noorollahi, Y. and Ziaee, E., "Assessment of wind energy use to store the water for generation power with two stage optimization method", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (JREE), Vol. 2, No. 2, (2015), 23-28.

3.     Golshannavaz, S. and Nazarpour, D., "Multi attribute investment planning of a grid-connected diesel/wind/PV/battery hybrid energy system", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (JREE), Vol. 1, No. 1, (2014), 43-52.

4.     He, J., Li, Y. and Blaabjerg, F., "An enhanced islanding microgrid reactive power, imbalance power, and harmonic power sharing scheme", IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol. 30, No. 6, (2014), 3389-3401. (DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2014.2332998).

5.     Zheng, F., Deng, C., Chen, L., Li, S., Liu, Y. and Liao, Y., "Transient performance improvement of microgrid by a resistive superconducting fault current limiter", IEEE Transaction on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 23, No. 3, (2015), 1-5. (DOI: 10.1109/ TASC.2015.2391120).

6.     Liu, K., He, J., Luo, Z., Shen, X., Liu, X. and Lu, T., "Secondary frequency control of isolated microgrid based on LADRC", IEEE Access,Vol. 7, (2019), 53454-53462. (DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS. 2019.2911911).

7.     Wang, C., Mi, Y., Fu, Y. and Wang, P., "Frequency control of an isolated micro-grid using double sliding mode controllers and disturbance observer", IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 9, No. 2, (2018), 923-930. (DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2016.2571439).

8.     Mosaad, M., "Model reference adaptive control of STATCOM for grid integration of wind energy systems", IET Electric Power Applications, Vol. 12, No. 5, (2018), 605-613. (DOI: 10.1049/iet-epa.2017.0662).

9.     Pal, K., Panigrahi, B.K., Mohapatra, S. and Mohapatra, A., "Impact of STATCOM on voltage profile in a DG penetrated grid connected system", Proceedings of 2017 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies (ICCPCT), India, (2017). (DOI: 10.1049/iet-epa.2017.0662).

10.   Hossain, E., Tür, M.R., Padmanaban, S., Ay, S. and Khan, I., "Analysis and mitigation of power quality issues in distributed generation systems using custom power devices", IEEE Access, Vol. 6, (2018), 16816-16833. (DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2814981).

11.   Mohanty, K.B. and Pati, S., "Voltage profile improvement of micro-grids using SMC based STATCOM", Proceedings of 2016 Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon), USA, (2016). (DOI: 10.1109/SYSCON.2016.7490609).

12.   Hosen, M.S., Abir, M.Z.I., Rana, M.S. and Ali, M.M., "An optimal control of three phase islanded microgrid system", Proceedings of International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Engineering (ECCE), Bangladesh, (2019). (DOI: 10.1109/ECACE.2019.8679112).

13.   Huang, X., Wang, K., Qiu, J., Hang, L., Li, G. and Wang, X., "Decentralized control of multi-parallel grid-forming DGs in islanded microgrids for enhanced transient performance", IEEE Access, Vol. 7, (2019), 17958-17968. (DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2896594).

14.   Romphochai, S. and Hongesombut, K., "Fuzzy logic voltage regulator for improving transient stability and fault ride through capability of DFIG wind turbines", International Review of Electrical Engineering (IREE), Vol. 10, No. 5, (2015), 670-677. (DOI: 10.670.10.15866/iree.v10i5.7403).

15.   Lee, H.-S., Koo, B.-G., Lee, S.-W., Kim, W. and Park, J.-H., "Optimal control of BESS in microgrid for islanded operation using fuzzy logic", Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Intelligent Systems, Modelling and Simulation, Malaysia, (2014). (DOI: 10.1109/ ISMS.2014.86).

16.   Lopes, J., Moreira, C. and Madureira, A., "Defining control strategies for microgrids islanded operation", IEEE Transaction on Power System, Vol. 21, No. 2, (2006), 916-924. (DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS. 2006.873018).

17.   Lai, J., Zhou, H., Lu, X., Yu, X. and Hu, W., "Droop-based distributed cooperative control for microgrids with time-varying delays", IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid, Vol. 7, No. 4, (2016), 1775-1789. (DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2016.2557813).

18.   Xu, Y., Zhang, W., Hug, G., Kar, S. and Lim, Z., "Cooperative control of distributed energy storage systems in a microgrid", IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 6, No. 1, (2015), 238-248. (DOI: 10.1109/ TSG.2014.2354033).

19.   Brearley, B.J. and Prabu, R.R., "A review on issues and approaches for microgrid protection", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 67, (2017), 988-997. (DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.047).

20.   Khan, Sh. and Bhowmick, S., "A novel power flow model of a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)", Proceedings of 6th IEEE Power India International Conference (PIICON), India, (2014). (DOI:10.1109/POWERI.2014.7117606).

21.   Kim, J.-Y., Kim, H.-M., Kim, S.-K., Jeon, J.-H. and Choi, H.-K., "Designing an energy storage system fuzzy PID controller for microgrid islanded operation", Energies, Vol. 4, No. 9, (2011), 1443-1460. (DOI: 10.3390/en4091443).

22.   Kim, J.-Y., Jeon, J.-H., Kim, S.-K., Cho, C.,Park, J.H., Kim, H.-M. and Nam, K.-Y., "Cooperative control strategy of energy storagesystem and microsources for stabilizing the microgrid during islanded operation", IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, Vol. 25, No. 12, (2010), 3037-3048. (DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2010.2073488).

23.   Mohammed, H. and Nwankpa, C.O., "Stochastic analysis and simulation of grid-connected wind energy conversion system", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 15, No. 1, (2000), 85-90. (DOI: 10.1109/60.849121).

24.   Toufouti, R., "Modeling and simulation of hybrid wind-diesel power generation system", International Journal of Renewable Energy, Vol. 8, No. 2, (2013), 49-58. (DOI: 10.14456/iire.2013.11).

25.   Allali, K., Azzag, E.B. and Kahoul, N., "Modeling and simulation of a wind-diesel hybrid power system for isolated areas”, International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 116, No. 23, (2015), 18-23. (DOI: 10.5120/20499-2409).

26.   Jurado, F. and Saenz, J.R., "Neuro-fuzzy control autonomous wind-diesel systems using biomass", Renwable Energy Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1, (2002), 39-56. (DOI: 10.1016/S0960-1481(01)00170-7).

27.   Khan, S. and Bhowmick, S., "STATCOM modeling for power flow analysis", Proceedings of 6th IEEE Power India International Conference (PIICON), India, (2014). (DOI: 10.1109/POWERI. 2014.7117603).

28.   Arani, A.A.K., Gharepetian, G.B. and Abedi, M., "A novel control method based on droop for cooperation of flywheel and battery energy storage systems in islanded microgrids", IEEE Systems Journal, (2019), 1-8. (DOI: 10.1109/JSYST.2019.2911160).

29.   Mehmood, K.K., Khan, S.U., Lee, S.-J., Haider, Z.M., Rafique, M.K. and Kim, C.-H., "Optimal sizing and allocation of battery energy storage systems with wind and solar power DGs in a distribution network for voltage regulation considering the lifespan of batteries", IET Renewable Power Generation, Vol. 11, No. 10, (2017), 1305-1315. (DOI: 10.1049/iet-rpg.2016.0938).

30.   Ali, H., Magdy, G., Li, B., Shabib, G., Elbaset, A.A., Xu, D. and Mitani, Y., "A new frequency control strategy in an islanded microgrid using virtual inertia control-based coefficient diagram method", IEEE Access, Vol. 7, (2019), 16979-16990. (DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS. 2019.2894840).

31.   Ameli, H., Abbasi, E., Ameli, M.T. and Strbac, G., "A fuzzy-logic-based control methodology for secure operation of a microgrid in interconnected and isolated modes", International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, Vol. 27, No. 11, (2017), 841-848. (DOI: 10.1002/etep.2389).

32.   Lei, Q., Si, Y. and Liu, Y., "Energy storage system control strategy to minimize the voltage and frequency fluctuation in the microgird", Proceedings of 2018 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), USA, (2018). (DOI: 10.1109/APEC. 2018.8341215).

33.   Issa, W.R., El Khateb, A.H., Abusara, M.A. and MallicK, T.K., "Control strategy for uninterrupted microgrid mode transfer during unintentional islanding scenarios", IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 65, No. 6, (2018), 4831-4839. (DOI: 10.1109/ TIE.2017.2772199).

34.   Awal, M.A., Yu, H., Tu, H., Lukic, S. and Husain, I., "Hierarchical control for virtual oscillator based grid-connected and islanded microgrids", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, (2019), 1-14. (DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2019.2912152).

35.   Shotorbani, A., Ghassem Zadeh, S., Mohammadi-Ivatloo, B. and Hosseini, S.H., "A distributed secondary scheme with terminal sliding mode controller for energy storages in an islanded microgrid", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, No. 93, (2017), 352-364. (DOI: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2017.06.013).