Document Type : Research Article


1 School of the Environment and Energy, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Daneshgah Blvd., Simon Bolivar Blvd., P. O. Box: 1477893855, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Sh. Ehsani Rad St., Enqelab St., Parsa Sq., Ahmadabad Mostoufi Rd., Azadegan Highway, P. O. Box: 3313193685, Tehran, Iran.


In this paper, an electrochemical model was developed to investigate the performance analysis of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The curves of voltage, power, efficiency, and the generated heat of cell have been analyzed to accomplish a set of optimal operating conditions. Further, a sensitivity analysis of major parameters that have a remarkable impact on the economy of the SOFC and its residential applications has been conducted. The results illustrate that the current density and cell performance temperature have vital effects on the system efficiency, output power and heat generation of cell of the SOFC. The best system efficiency is approached up to 53.34 % while implementing combined heat and power generation might be further improved up to 86 %. The economic evaluation results indicate that parameters such as overall efficiency, natural gas price and additional produced electricity that has prone to be sold to the national power grid, have a significant impact on the SOFC economy. The results indicate the strong reduction in the purchasing cost of the SOFC, i.e. not more than $2500, and improving the electrical efficiency of SOFC, i.e. not less than 42 %, can be the breakeven points of investment on such systems in residential applications. Also, it is found that the target of this SOFC cogeneration system for residential applications in Iran is relying on considerable technological enhancement of the SOFC, as well as life cycle improvement; improvement in governmental policies; and profound development in infrastructures to mitigate legal constraints.


Main Subjects

1.     Ozgoli, H.A., "Exergy analysis of a molten carbonate fuel cell-turbo expander-steam turbine hybrid cycle", Iranian Journal of Hydrogen & Fuel Cell, Vol. 3, (2017), 267-279. (DOI: 10.22104/ijhfc.2017.480).
2.     Ozgoli, H.A. and Ghadamian, H., "Energy price analysis of a biomass gasification-solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine power plant", Iranian Journal of Hydrogen Fuel Cell, Vol. 3, No. 1, (2016), 45-58. (DOI: 10.22104/IJHFC.2016.327).
3.     Ozgoli, H.A., Ghadamian, H. and Hamidi, H., "Modeling SOFC & GT integrated-cycle power system with energy consumption minimizing target to improve comprehensive cycle performance (Applied in pulp and paper, case studied)", GSTF Journal of Engineering Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, (2012). (DOI: 10.5176/2251-3701_1.1.1).
4.     Ahmadi, N., Dadvand, A., Mirzaei, I. and Rezazadeh, S., "Modeling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with circular and elliptical cross-section gas channels: A novel procedure", International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 42, No. 8, (2018), 2805-2822. (DOI: 10.1002/er.4069).
5.     Pellegrino, S., Lanzini, A. and Leone, P., "Techno-economic and policy requirements for the market-entry of the fuel cell micro-CHP system in the residential sector", Applied Energy, Vol. 143, (2015), 370-382. (DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.01.007).
6.     Ozgoli, H.A., Ghadamian, H., Roshandel, R. and Moghadasi, M., "Alternative biomass fuels consideration exergy and power analysis for a hybrid system includes PSOFC and GT integration", Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, Vol. 37, (2015), 1962-1970. (DOI: 10.1080/15567036.2012.654898).
7.     Kupecki, J., "Off-design analysis of a micro-CHP unit with solid oxide fuel cells fed by DME", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 40, No. 35, (2015), 12009-12022. (Doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene. 2015.06.031).
8.     Napoli, R., Gandiglio, M., Lanzini, A. and Santarelli, M., "Techno-economic analysis of PEMFC and SOFC micro-CHP fuel cell systems for the residential sector", Energy Buildings, Vol. 103, (2015), 131-146. (DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.06.052).
9.     Yang, W., Zhao, Y., Liso, V. and Brandon, N., "Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China", Energy Buildings, Vol. 80, (2014), 613-622. (DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.05.015).
10.   Longo, S., Cellura, M., Guarino, F., Brunaccini, G. and Ferraro, M., "Life cycle energy and environmental impacts of a solid oxide fuel cell micro-CHP system for residential application", Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 685, (2019), 59-73. (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv. 2019.05.368).
11.   Brown, J., Hajilounezhad, T., Dee, N.T., Kim, S., Hart, A.J. and Maschmann, M.R., "Delamination mechanics of carbon nanotube micropillars", ACS Applied Materials, Vol. 11, No. 38, (2019), 35221-35227. (DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b09979).
12.   Marcoberardino, G.D, Chiarabaglio, L., Manzolini, G. and Campanari, S., "A techno-economic comparison of micro-cogeneration systems based on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell for residential applications", Applied Energy, Volume 239, (2019), 692-705. (DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.01.17).
13.   Ozgoli, H.A., Moghadasi, M., Farhani, F. and Sadigh, M., "Modeling and simulation of an integrated gasification SOFC–CHAT cycle toimprove power and efficiency", Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, Vol. 36, (2017), 610-618. (DOI: 10.1002/ep.12487).
14.   Ozgoli, H.A., Ghadamian, H. and Farzaneh, H., "Energy efficiency improvement analysis considering environmental aspects in regard to biomass gasification PSOFC/GT power generation system", Procedia Environmental Sciences, Vol. 17, (2013), 831-841. (DOI: 10.1016/j.proenv.2013.02.101).
15.   Ghadamian, H., Hamidi, A., Farzaneh, H. and Ozgoli, H.A., "Thermo-economic analysis of absorption air cooling system for pressurized solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine cycle", Journal of Renewable Sustainable Energy, Vol. 4, No. 4, (2012), 043115. (DOI: 10.1063/1.4742336).
16.   Akkaya, A.V., "Electrochemical model for performance analysis of a tubular SOFC", International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, (2007), 79-98. (DOI: 10.1002/er.1238).
17.   Akkaya, A.V., Sahin, B. and Erdem, H.H., "An analysis of SOFC/GT CHP system based on exergetic performance criteria", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 33, No. 10, (2008), 2566-2577. (DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.03.013).
18.   George, R.A., "Status of tubular SOFC field unit demonstrations", Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 86, No. 1-2, (2000), 134-139. (DOI: 10.1016/S0378-7753(99)00413-9).
19.   Bompard, E., Napoli, R., Wan, B. and Orsello, G., "Economics evaluation of a 5 kW SOFC power system for residential use", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 33, No. 12, (2008), 3243-3247. (DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.04.017).
20.   Ahmadi, N. and Rostami, S., "Enhancing the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell by optimizing the operating parameter", Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 41, No. 220, (2019). (DOI: 10.1007/s40430-019-1720-0).
21.   Hajilounezhad, T., Ajiboye, D.M. and Maschmann, M.R., "Evaluating the forces generated during carbon nanotube forest growth and self-assembly", Materialia, (2019), 100371. )DOI: 10.1016/j.mtla. 2019.100371).