Document Type : Research Article


Department of Civil Engineering, Chalous Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalous, Iran.


Must limited energy resources and the need for energy saving make the design of buildings more efficient in terms of energy consumption. For this reason, proper orientation of buildings, use of sunlight, natural ventilation, application of consumable materials are factors that help reduce heat and cooling loads. The objective of this study is to evaluate the energy efficiency of residential buildings using natural energy and optimizing the choice of materials for heat and cold saving with the Ecotect simulation software. According to analysis and simulation, it was found that the optimum materials of the main building components in a mild climate zone of Rasht city include (a) the Brick Conc block Plaster for a wall with the total radiation incident of 340 W/m2 and a radiation absorption of 240 W/m2, (b) Double Glazed-Low E for windows with the total radiation incident of 340 W/m2 and a radiation absorption of 100 W/m2, (c) Foam Core Ply Wood for door with the total radiation incident of 340 W/m2 and a radiation absorption of 200 W/m2, (d) ConcSlab- OnGround for floor with the total radiation incident of 340 W/m2 and a radiation absorption of 220 W/m2, and (e) Conc Roof Asphalt for roof with the total radiation incident of 340 W/m2 and a radiation absorption of 300 W/m2. According to an hourly temperature analysis of all stories of the building on two hot and cold days of the year and as observed by the design and material selection requirements, the building will be conditioned in an almost thermal comfort zone (below 30 degrees) in the warm season.


Main Subjects

1.     Singh, M.K., Mahapatra, S. and Atreya, S.K., "Thermal performance study and evaluation of comfort temperatures in vernacular buildings of North-East India", Building and Environment, Vol. 45, (2010), 320-329. (
2.    Hemsath, T.L. and Bandhosseini, A.K., "Sensitivity analysis evaluating basic building geometry’s effect on energy use", Renewable Energy, Vol. 76, (2015), 526-538. ( 2014.11.044).
3.     Jamaludin, N., Mohammed, N.I., Khamidi, M.F. and Abdul Wahab, S.N., "Thermal comfort of residential building in Malaysia at different micro-climates", Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 170, (2015), 613-623. (
5.     Valinejad Shoubi, M., Valinejad Shoubi, M., Bagchi, A. and Shakiba Barough, A., "Reducing the operational energy demand in buildings using building information modeling tools and sustainability approaches", Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Vol. 6, (2014), 41-55. (
6.     Berardi, U. and Wang, T., "Daylighting in an atrium-type high performance house", Building and Environment, Vol. 76, (2014), 92-104. (
8.     Ihm, P., Nemri, A. and Krarti, M., "Estimation of lighting energy savings from daylighting", Building and Environment, Vol. 44, (2009), 509-514. (
9.     Al-Tamimi, N. and Fadzil, S.F.S., "Energy-efficient envelope design for high-rise residential buildings in Malaysia", Architectural Science Review, Vol. 55, (2012), 119-127. ( 00038628.2012.667938).
11.   Youngjib, H. and Golparvar-Fard, M., "EPAR: Energy Performance Augmented Reality models for identification of building energy performance deviations between actual measurements and simulation results", Energy and Buildings, Vol. 63, (2013), 15-28. (
14.   Gao, W., Ariyama, T., Ojima, T. and Meier, A., "Energy impacts of recycling disassembly material in residential buildings", Energy and Buildings, Vol. 33, (2001), 553-562. (
15.   Praseeda, K.I., Venkatarama Reddy, B.V. and Mani, M., "Embodied energy assessment of building materials in India using process and input–output analysis", Energy and Buildings, Vol. 86, (2015), 677-686. (
16.   Ouyang, X. and Lin, B., "Analyzing energy savings potential of the Chinese building materials industry under different economic growth scenarios", Energy and Building, Vol. 10915, (2015), 316-327. (
17.   Melo, M.O., da Silva, L.B., Coutinho, A.S., Sousa, V. and Perazzo, N., "Energy efficiency in building installations using thermal insulating materials in northeast Brazil", Energy and Buildings, Vol. 47, (2012), 35-43. (
18.   Tettey, U.Y.A., Dodoo, A. and Gustavsson, L., "Effects of different insulation materials on primary energy and CO2 emission of a multi-storey residential building", Energy and Buildings, Vol. 82, (2014), 369-377. (
19.   Alam, M., Zou, P.X.W., Sanjayan, J. and Ramakrishnan, S., "Energy saving performance assessment and lessons learned from the operation of an active phase change materials system in a multi-storey building in Melbourne", Applied Energy, Vol. 238, (2019), 1582-1595. (
20.   Sovetova, M., Memon, S.A. and Kim, J., "Thermal performance and energy efficiency of building integrated with PCMs in hot desert climate region", Solar Energy, Vol. 189, (2019), 357-371. ( 10.1016/j.solener.2019.07.067).
21.   Johra, H. and Heiselberg, P., "Influence of internal thermal mass on the indoor thermal dynamics and integration of phase change materials in furniture for building energy storage: A review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 69, (2017), 19-32. (
22.   Ascione, F., Bianco, N., De Masi, R.F., de’ Rossi, F. and Vanoli, G.P., "Energy refurbishment of existing buildings through the use of phase change materials: Energy savings and indoor comfort in the cooling season", Applied Energy, Vol. 113, (2014), 990-1007. (
23.   Cabeza, L.F., Castell, A., Barreneche, C., de Gracia, A. and Fernández, A.I., "Materials used as PCM in thermal energy storage in buildings: A review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15, No. 3, (2011), 1675-1695. (
24.   Cascone, Y., Capozzoli, A. and Perino, M., "Optimisation analysis of PCM-enhanced opaque building envelope components for the energy retrofitting of office buildings in Mediterranean climates", Applied Energy, Vol. 211, (2018), 929-953. ( j.apenergy.2017.11.081).
25.   Saffari, M., de Gracia, A., Ushak, S. and Cabeza, L.F., "Passive cooling of buildings with phase change materials using whole-building energy simulation tools: A review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 80, (2017), 1239-1255. ( j.rser.2017.05.139).
26.    Saafi, K. and Daouas, N., "Energy and cost efficiency of phase change materials integrated in building envelopes under Tunisia Mediterranean climate", Energy, Vol. 187, (2019), 115987. ( 10.1016/
27.   Akeiber, H., Nejat, P., Majid, M.Z.A., Wahid, M.A. and Zaki, S.A., "A review on phase change material (PCM) for sustainable passive cooling in building envelopes", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 60, (2016), 1470-1497. (
28.   Zhou, Z., Zhang, Z., Zuo, J., Huang, K. and Zhang, L., "Phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage in residential buildings in cold climate", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 48, (2015), 692-703. (
29.   Hoseinzadeh, S., Zakeri, M.H., Shirkhani, A. and Chamkha, A.J., "Analysis of energy consumption improvements of a zero-energy building in a humid mountainous area", Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2019), 015103, 1-12. (
30.   Hoseinzadeh, S. and Azadi, R., "Simulation and optimization of a solar-assisted heating and cooling system for a house in Northern of Iran", Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol. 9, No. 4, (2017), 045101, 1-14. (
31.   Amani, N., "Building energy conservation in atrium spaces based on ECOTECT simulation software in hot summer and cold winter zone in Iran", International Journal of Energy Sector Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, (2018), 298-313. (
32.   Peng, C., "Calculation of a building's life cycle carbon emissions based on Ecotect and building information modeling", Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 112, Part 1, (2016), 453-465. ( j.jclepro.2015.08.078).
34.   Amani, N., "Energy efficiency using the simulation software of atrium thermal environment in residential building: a case study", Advances in Building Energy Research, Vol. 13, No. 1, (2019), 65-79. (
35.   Rashwan, A., Farag, O. and Moustafa, W.S., "Energy performance analysis of integrating building envelopes with nano materials", International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, Vol. 2, No. 2,  (2013), 209-223. (