Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.

2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Germi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Germi, Ardabil, Iran.

Abstract

The use of small-scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP) to meet the electrical and thermal needs of buildings has grown exponentially and plans have been made in Iran to expand these systems. In view of the above, in the present work, for the first time, sensitivity analysis has been performed on the parameters of natural gas price, annual interest rate, and the price of pollutant penalties. The CHP system studied included fuel cell, biomass generator, solar cell, wind turbine, and gas boiler. The techno-econo-enviro simulations were performed by HOMER software and the study area was Abadan. The use of a dump load to convert excess electricity into heat and heat recovery in a biomass generator and fuel cell are other advantages presented by the present work. The minimum Cost of Energy (COE) is 1.16 $/kWh. The results also showed that the use of biomass generators was economical when the annual interest rate was 30 %. The significant effect of using dump load on the required heat supply and the lowest price per kg of hydrogen produced equal to $ 35.440 are other results of the present work. In general, the results point to the superiority of solar radiation potential over wind energy potential of the study area and the prominent role of dump load in providing heat on a residential scale is clearly seen. Also, for the current situation, using biomass is not cost-effective.
 

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., Jahangiri, M., Koohi Faegh, A. and Raeisi Dehkordi, A., "Biogas production in a dairy cow unit to provide a sustainable solution for reducing the environmental pollutions and pathogens", Proceedings of 11th International Energy Conference (IEC 2016), Tehran, Iran, (2016). (https://www.academia.edu/37642439/Biogas_production_in_a_dairy_cow_unit_to_provide_a_sustainable_solution_for_reducing_the_environmental_pollutions_and_pathogens).
  2. Zaniani, J.R., Ghahfarokhi, S.T., Jahangiri, M. and Shamsabadi, A.A., "Design and optimization of heating, cooling and lightening systems for a residential villa at Saman city, Iran", Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Vol. 17, (2019), 41-52. (https://doi.org/10.1108/JEDT-01-2018-0003).
  3. Alamdari, P., Nematollahi, O. and Jahangiri, M., "Feasibility study of wind energy for generate electricity in Province of Sistan and Baluchistan, case study: Nosrat Abad", Proceedings of 3rd International Scientific Conference of Iranian Students in Belarus-Minsk, (2012). (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321623925_Feasibility_study_of_wind_energy_for_generate_electricity_in_Province_of_Sistan_and_Baluchistan_case_study_Nosrat_Abad).
  4. Sorgulu, F. and Dincer, I., "Development and assessment of a biomass-based cogeneration system with desalination", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 185, (2021), 116432. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2020.116432).
  5. Fakhari, I., Behzadi, A., Gholamian, E., Ahmadi, P. and Arabkoohsar, A., "Comparative double and integer optimization of low-grade heat recovery from PEM fuel cells employing an organic Rankine cycle with zeotropic mixtures”, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 228, (2021), 13695. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2020.113695).
  6. Ahmadi, A., Jamali, D.H., Ehyaei, M.A. and Assad, M.E.H., "Energy, exergy, economic and exergoenvironmental analyses of gas and air bottoming cycles for production of electricity and hydrogen with gas reformer", Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 259, (2020), 120915. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120915).
  7. Abu-Rayash, A. and Dincer, I., "A sustainable trigeneration system for residential applications", Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 143, (2021), 012101. (https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4047599).
  8. Shaygan, M., Ehyaei, M.A., Ahmadi, A., Assad, M.E.H. and Silveira, J.L., "Energy, exergy, advanced exergy and economic analyses of hybrid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell and photovoltaic cells to produce hydrogen and electricity", Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 234, (2019), 1082-1093. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.06.298).
  9. Ehyaei, M.A., Ahmadi, A., Assad, M.E.H. and Rosen, M.A., "Investigation of an integrated system combining an organic rankine cycle and absorption chiller driven by geothermal energy: Energy, exergy, and economic analyses and optimization", Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 258, (2020), 120780. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120780).
  10. Pahlavan, S., Jahangiri, M., Shamsabadi, A.A. and Baharizadeh, A., "Assessing the current status of renewable energies and their limitations in Iran", International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Vol. 9, (2020), 97-105. (https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.9.1.97-105).
  11. Rosen, M.A., Le, M.N. and Dincer, I., "Efficiency analysis of a cogeneration and district energy system", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 25, (2005), 147-159. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2004.05.008).
  12. Boudellal, M., "Cogénération et micro-cogénération-2e éd.: Solutions pour améliorer l'efficacité énergétique", Dunod, (2013). (https://www.dunod.com/sciences-techniques/cogeneration-et-micro-cogeneration-solutions-pour-ameliorer-efficacite).
  13. Combined heat and power (cogeneration)–making the most of energy, Green City Times, (2020). (https://www.greencitytimes.com/combined-heat-and-power), (Accessed: 04 Dec. 2020).
  14. Mostafaeipour, A., Rezaei, M., Jahangiri, M. and Qolipour, M., "Feasibility analysis of a new tree-shaped wind turbine for urban application: A case study", Energy & Environment, Vol. 31, (2020), 1230-1256. (https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0958305X19888878).
  15. World Bank Statistics, Electric power transmission and distribution losses | World Bank Data, (2020). (https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.LOSS.ZS?locations=IR), (Accessed: 04 Dec. 2020).
  16. TAVANIR Publication, Statistics of Iran power generation, In: Iran power generation and transmission company statistics, Tavanir, (2008). (http://www.satba.gov.ir/suna_content/media/image/2017/02/5196_orig.pdf?t=636219021775330000).
  17. Fakhari, I., Behzadi, A., Gholamian, E., Ahmadi, P. and Arabkoohsar, A., "Design and tri-objective optimization of a hybrid efficient energy system for tri-generation, based on PEM fuel cell and MED using syngas as a fuel", Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 290, (2021), 125205. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125205).
  18. Waqar, A., Shahbaz Tanveer, M., Ahmad, J., Aamir, M., Yaqoob, M. and Anwar, F., "Multi-objective analysis of a CHP plant integrated microgrid in Pakistan", Energies, Vol. 10, (2017), 1625. (https://doi.org/10.3390/en10101625).
  19. Yuan, J., Xu, J., Wang, Y. and Sutrisna, M., "Techno-economic study of a distributed hybrid renewable energy system supplying electrical power and heat for a rural house in China", Proceedings of International Conference on Renewable Energy and Environment (ICREE 2017), Toronto, Canada, (2018). (https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/127/1/012001).
  20. Jahangiri, M., Rizi, R.A. and Shamsabadi, A.A., "Feasibility study on simultaneous generation of electricity and heat using renewable energies in Zarrin Shahr, Iran", Sustainable Cities and Society, Vol. 38, (2018), 647-661. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.01.043).
  21. Pahlavan, S., Jahangiri, M., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A. and Rahimi Ariae, A., "Assessment of PV-based CHP system: The effect of heat recovery factor and fuel type", Journal of Energy Management and Technology, Vol. 3, (2019), 40-47. (https://doi.org/10.22109/jemt.2018.137207.1106).
  22. Khormali, S. and Niknam, E., "Operation cost minimization of domestic microgrid under the time of use pricing using HOMER", Proceedings of 20th International Scientific Conference on Electric Power Engineering (EPE), (2019), 1-6. (https://doi.org/10.1109/EPE.2019.8778109).
  23. Kalamaras, E., Belekoukia, M., Lin, Z., Xu, B., Wang, H. and Xuan, J., “Techno-economic assessment of a hybrid off-grid DC system for combined heat and power generation in remote islands", Energy Procedia, Vol. 158, (2019), 6315-6320. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.406).
  24. Gbadamosi, S.L. and Nwulu, N.I., "Optimal power dispatch and reliability analysis of hybrid CHP-PV-wind systems in farming applications", Sustainability, Vol. 12, (2020), 8199. (http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su12198199).
  25. Masrur, H., Khan, K.R., Abumelha, W. and Senjyu, T., "Efficient energy delivery system of the CHP-PV based microgrids with the economic feasibility study", International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, Vol. 21, (2020), 20190144. (https://doi.org/10.1515/ijeeps-2019-0144).
  26. Pelaez-Pelaez, S., Colmenar-Santos, A., Pérez-Molina, C., Rosales, A.E. and Rosales-Asensio, E., "Techno-economic analysis of a heat and power combination system based on hybrid photovoltaic-fuel cell systems using hydrogen as an energy vector", Energy, Vol. 224, (2021), 120110. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2021.120110).
  27. Elkadeem, M.R., Kotb, K.M., Elmaadawy, K., Ullah, Z., Elmolla, E., Liu, B., Wang, S., Dan, A. and Sharshir, S.W., "Feasibility analysis and optimization of an energy-water-heat nexus supplied by an autonomous hybrid renewable power generation system: An empirical study on airport facilities", Desalination, Vol. 504, (2021), 114952. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2021.114952).
  28. Nematollahi, O., Alamdari, P., Jahangiri, M., Sedaghat, A. and Alemrajabi, A.A., "A techno-economical assessment of solar/wind resources and hydrogen production: A case study with GIS maps", Energy, Vol. 175, (2019), 914-930. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.03.125).
  29. Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Heidarian, S., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A. and Pomares, L.M., "Electrification of a tourist village using hybrid renewable energy systems, Sarakhiyeh in Iran", Journal of Solar Energy Research, Vol. 3, (2018), 201-211. (https://journals.ut.ac.ir/article_68643.html).
  30. Shamsabadi, A.A., Jahangiri, M., Bardei, F.K. and Raeisi, H.A., "Investigation of sensitivity analysis in the generation of renewable electricity for a hybrid system in Iran", Proceedings of 12th International Energy Conference (IEC 2018), Tehran, Iran, (2018). (https://en.civilica.com/doc/848589).
  31. Jahangiri, M., Soulouknga, M.H., Bardei, F.K., Shamsabadi, A.A., Akinlabi, E.T., Sichilalu, S.M. and Mostafaeipour, A., "Techno-econo-environmental optimal operation of grid-wind-solar electricity generation with hydrogen storage system for domestic scale, case study in Chad", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 44, (2019), 28613-28628. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.09.130).
  32. Pahlavan, S., Jahangiri, M., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A. and Khechekhouche, A., "Feasibility study of solar water heaters in Algeria, a review", Journal of Solar Energy Research, Vol. 3, (2018), 135-146. (https://jser.ut.ac.ir/article_67424.html).
  33. Jahangiri, M., Shamsabadi, A.A., Mostafaeipour, A., Rezaei, M., Yousefi, Y. and Pomares, L.M., "Using fuzzy MCDM technique to find the best location in Qatar for exploiting wind and solar energy to generate hydrogen and electricity", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 45, (2020), 13862-13875. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.03.101).
  34. Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Mostafaeipour, A., Khosravi, A. and Raeisi, H.A., "Assessment of solar-wind power plants in Afghanistan: A review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 99, (2019), 169-190. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.10.003).
  35. Jahangiri, M., Khosravi, A., Raiesi, H.A. and Mostafaeipour, A., "Analysis of standalone PV-based hybrid systems for power generation in Rural area", Proceedings of International Conference on Fundamental Research in Electrical Engineering, Tehran, Iran, (2017). (https://en.civilica.com/doc/672922/).
  36. Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Heidarian, S., Mostafaeipour, A., Raiesi, H.A. and Shamsabadi, A.A., "Sensitivity analysis of using solar cells in regional electricity power supply of off-grid power systems in Iran", Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Vol. 18, (2020), 1849-1866. (https://doi.org/10.1108/JEDT-10-2019-0268).
  37. Okedu, K.E. and Uhunmwangho, R., "Optimization of renewable energy efficiency using HOMER", International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER), Vol. 4, (2014), 421-427. (https://www.ijrer.org/ijrer/index.php/ijrer/article/view/1231).
  38. Das, B.K., Tushar, M.S.H. and Zaman, F., "Techno-economic feasibility and size optimisation of an off-grid hybrid system for supplying electricity and thermal loads", Energy, Vol. 215, (2021), 119141. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.119141).
  39. Ebrahimi, S., Jahangiri, M., Raiesi, H.A. and Ariae, A.R., "Optimal planning of on-grid hybrid microgrid for remote island using HOMER software, Kish in Iran", International Journal of Energetica, Vol. 3, (2018), 13-21. (https://doi.org/10.47238/ijeca.v3i2.77).
  40. Moein, M., Pahlavan, S., Jahangiri, M. and Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., "Finding the minimum distance from the national electricity grid for the cost-effective use of diesel generator-based hybrid renewable systems in Iran", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (JREE), Vol. 5, (2018), 8-22. (https://doi.org/10.30501/jree.2018.88377).
  41. Jahangiri, M., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A. and Saghaei, H., "Comprehensive evaluation of using solar water heater on a household scale in Canada", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (JREE), Vol. 5, (2018), 35-42. (https://doi.org/10.30501/jree.2018.88491).
  42. Alamdari, P., Nematollahi, O., Jahangiri, M. and Hajji Malayeri, A., "Feasibility study of wind energy potential in Alborz province for generate electricity, a case study: Eshtehard", Proceedings of 1st Specialty Conference of the Wind and Sun, Tehran, Iran, (2012). (https://en.civilica.com/doc/136593/).
  43. Sedaghat, A., Mostafaeipour, A., Rezaei, M., Jahangiri, M. and Mehrabi, A., "A new semi-empirical wind turbine capacity factor for maximizing annual electricity and hydrogen production", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 45, (2020), 15888-15903. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.04.028).
  44. Jahangiri, M., Hajji Malayeri, A., Sedaghat, A. and Aghaei, E., "Investigating wind potential for clean energy production in Khorasan Razavi Province, case study: Jangal station", Proceedings of 1st Specialty Conference of the Wind and Sun, Tehran, Iran, (2012). (https://en.civilica.com/doc/136596/).
  45. Ariae, A.R., Jahangiri, M., Fakhr, M.H. and Shamsabadi, A.A., "Simulation of biogas utilization effect on the economic efficiency and greenhouse gas emission: A case study in Isfahan, Iran", International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Vol. 8, (2019), 149-160. (https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.8.2.149-160).
  46. Mostafaeipour, A., Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Dehshiri, S.J.H., Dehshiri, S.S.H., Sedaghat, A., Saghaei, H., Akinlabi, E.T., Sichilalu, S.M., Chowdhury, M.S. and Techato, K., "Statistical evaluation of using the new generation of wind turbines in South Africa", Energy Reports, Vol. 6, (2020), 2816-2827. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2020.09.035).
  47. Jahangiri, M., Shamsabadi, A.A., Riahi, R., Raeiszadeh, F. and Dehkordi, P.F., "Levelized cost of electricity for wind-solar power systems in Japan, a review", Journal of Power Technologies, Vol. 100, (2020), 188-210. (https://papers.itc.pw.edu.pl/index.php/JPT/article/view/1359).
  48. Jahangiri, M., Shamsabadi, A.A., Nematollahi, O. and Mostafaeipour, A., "Enviro-economic investigation of a new generation of wind turbines", International Journal of Strategic Energy and Environmental Planning, Vol. 2, (2020), 43-59. (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341670932_Enviro-economic_Investigation_of_a_New_Generation_of_Wind_Turbines_International_Journal_of_Strategic_Energy_Environmental_Planning_2_3_pp_43-59).
  49. Rezk, H., Alghassab, M. and Ziedan, H.A., "An optimal sizing of stand-alone hybrid PV-fuel cell-battery to desalinate seawater at Saudi NEOM city", Processes, Vol. 8, (2020), 382. (https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040382).
  50. Ghaderian, A., Jahangiri, M. and Saghaei, H., "Emergency power supply for NICU of a hospital by solar-wind-based system, a step towards sustainable development", Journal of Solar Energy Research, Vol. 5, (2020), 506-515. (https://doi.org/10.22059/jser.2020.306423.1166).
  51. Jahangiri, M., Nematollahi, O., Haghani, A., Raiesi, H.A. and Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., "An optimization of energy cost of clean hybrid solar-wind power plants in Iran", International Journal of Green Energy, Vol. 16, (2019), 1422-1435. (https://doi.org/10.1080/15435075.2019.1671415).
  52. Ghenai, C. and Bettayeb, M., "Grid-tied solar PV/fuel cell hybrid power system for university building", Energy Procedia, Vol. 159, (2019), 96-103. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2018.12.025).
  53. Zaniani, J.R., Dehkordi, R.H., Bibak, A., Bayat, P. and Jahangiri, M., "Examining the possibility of using solar energy to provide warm water using RETScreen4 software (Case study: Nasr primary school of pirbalut)", Current World Environment, Vol. 10, (2015), 835-841. (https://doi.org/10.12944/CWE.10.Special-Issue1.101).