Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.

Abstract

In Iran, due to the problems and constraints of fossil fuels and the need to maximize the use of solar potential, one of the best ways is the application of photovoltaic systems integrated with buildings. Due to the significant dependence of solar cell performance on the availability of radiation, it is necessary for architects to have an accurate assessment of the amount of electricity produced in different conditions. Therefore, in the present work, using HOMER software, the energy-econo-Enviro (3E) potential of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) in Abadan was studied. The effect of slope and azimuth of solar cells as well as cloudiness and system losses were investigated using sensitivity analysis. The results showed that the PV-grid system was the most economical option and after the azimuth angle of zero degree, the positive azimuth angle was the most economical. The results also showed that the slope of 30 degree and the angle of azimuth equal to zero was appropriate, for which the price per kWh of generated electricity was calculated to be $0.09. For the use of solar cells in the vertical wall of the building, the southwest direction was the most suitable and based on the results, it was suggested that the western wall of the building should be in the form of “inclined PVs with windows”. The authors of this paper hope that the results of the present work can be used by architects and energy decision-makers as a guide in developing the BIPV use in Iran.
 

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. Kalbasi, R., Izadi, F. and Talebizadehsardari, P., "Improving performance of AHU using exhaust air potential by applying exergy analysis", Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 139, (2020), 2913-2923. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-09198-1).
  2. Li, Z., Du, C., Ahmadi, D., Kalbasi, R. and Rostami, S., "Numerical modeling of a hybrid PCM‑based wall for energy usage reduction in the warmest and coldest months", Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 144, (2020), 1985-1998. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-09861-y).
  3. Nariman, A., Kalbasi, R. and Rostami, S., "Sensitivity of AHU power consumption to PCM implementation in the wall-considering the solar radiation", Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 143, (2020), 2789-2800. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-10068-4).
  4. Zomer, C., Custódio, I., Antoniolli, A. and Rüther, R., "Performance assessment of partially shaded building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems in a positive-energy solar energy laboratory building: Architecture perspectives", Solar Energy, Vol. 211, (2020), 879-896. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2020.10.026).
  5. Building Integrated Photovoltaics for Norway. (http://bipvno.no), (Accessed: 27 Nov. 2020).
  6. Tabakovic, M., Fechner, H., Van Sark, W., Louwen, A., Georghiou, G., Makrides, G., Loucaidou, E., Ioannidou, M., Weiss, I., Arancon, S. and Betz, S., "Status and outlook for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in relation to educational needs in the BIPV sector", Energy Procedia, Vol. 111, (2017), 993-999. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.262).
  7. Bonomo, P., Chatzipanagi, A. and Frontini, F., "Overview and analysis of current BIPV products: New criteria for supporting the technological transfer in the building sector", VITRUVIO-International Journal of Architectural Technology and Sustainability, Vol. 1, (2015), 67-85. (https://doi.org/10.4995/vitruvio-ijats.2015.4476).
  8. Haugjord, A., "Building integrated photovoltaics with thermal energy storage: A techno-economic performance assessment under grid constraints", Master's Thesis, University of Agder, (2020). (https://uia.brage.unit.no/uia-xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/2679376/Alexander%20Haugjord.pdf?sequence=1).
  9. Kalbasi, R., Shahsavar, A. and Afrand, M., "Incorporating novel heat recovery units into an AHU for energy demand reduction-exergy analysis" Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 139, (2020), 2821-2830. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-09060-4).
  10. Nguyen, Q., Naghieh, A., Kalbasi, R., Akbari, M., Karimipour, A. and Tlili, I., "Efficacy of incorporating PCMs into the commercial wall on the energy-saving annual thermal analysis", Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 143, (2020), 2179-2187. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-09713-9).
  11. Kalbasi, R., Shahsavar, A. and Afrand, M., "Reducing AHU energy consumption by a new layout of using heat recovery units", Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 139, (2020), 2811-2820. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-09070-2).
  12. Delponte, E., Marchi, F., Frontini, F., Polo, C., Fath, K. and Batey, M., "BIPV in EU28, from niche to mass market: an assessment of current projects and the potential for growth through product innovation", Proceedings of 31st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference Exhibition, (2015), 3046-3050. (https://doi.org/10.4229/EUPVSEC20152015-7DO.15.4).
  13. BIPV market and stakeholderanalysis and needs, PVSites, (http://www.pvsites.eu), (Accessed: 27 Nov. 2020).
  14. Updated on BIPV market and stakeholder analysis, BIPV boost, Public reports. (https://bipvboost.eu/public-reports), (Accessed: 27 Nov. 2020).
  15. Worldwide BIPV Market, 24-7 press release. (https://www.24-7pressrelease.com/press-release/455396/worldwide-bipv-market-to-reach-57-billion-in-2023-says-new-n-tech-report), (Accessed: 29 Nov. 2020).
  16. Jahangiri, M., Ghaderi, R., Haghani, A. and Nematollahi, O., "Finding the best locations for establishment of solar-wind power stations in Middle-East using GIS: A review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 66, (2016), 38-52. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.07.069).
  17. Kalbasi, R., Jahangiri, M., Nariman, A. and Yari, M., "Optimal design and parametric assessment of grid-connected solar power plants in Iran, a Review", Journal of Solar Energy Research, Vol. 4, (2019), 142-162. (https://dx.doi.org/10.22059/jser.2019.282276.1114).
  18. Kuehner, A.L., Mdeihli, N., Coccolo, S., Perera, A.T.D., Mohajeri, N. and Scartezzini, J.L., "Extending building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) using distributed energy hubs. A case study in Cartigny, Switzerland", Energy Procedia, Vol. 122, (2017), 487-492. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.299).
  19. Tadesse, M., "Design and feasibility analysis of Building Integrated PV (BIPV) system: Case study in Bahir Dar university lecture halls building", American Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 5, (2017), 24-32. (https://doi.org/10.12691/ajme-5-1-5).
  20. Aelenei, D., Lopes, R.A., Aelenei, L. and Gonçalves, H., "Investigating the potential for energy flexibility in an office building with a vertical BIPV and a PV roof system", Renewable Energy, Vol. 137, (2019), 189-197. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.07.140).
  21. Ramanan, P., Kalidasa Murugavel, K., Karthick, A. and Sudhakar, K., "Performance evaluation of building-integrated photovoltaic systems for residential buildings in southern India", Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Vol. 41, (2019), 492-506. (https://doi.org/10.1177/0143624419881740).
  22. Ni, Z., Jiang, J., Cai, X., Hu, L., Shi, G., Cao, H., Lu, W. and Wu, Z., "System design and economic configuration of building integrated photovoltaic", Proceedings of 37th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, (2020), 1891-1895. (https://www.eupvsec-planner.com/presentations/c49007/system_design_and_economic_configuration_of_building_integrated_photovoltaic.htm).
  23. Thomas, R. ed., Photovoltaics and architecture, Taylor & Francis, (2003). (https://www.amazon.com/Photovoltaics-Architecture-Randall-Thomas/dp/0415231825).
  24. Climate of Iran, Iran Traveling Center. (https://www.irantravelingcenter.com/climate-of-iran), (Accessed 24 Nov. 2020).
  25. Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Heidarian, S., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A. and Pomares, L.M., "Electrification of a tourist village using hybrid renewable energy systems, Sarakhiyeh in Iran", Journal of Solar Energy Research, Vol. 3, (2018), 201-211. (https://jser.ut.ac.ir/article_68643.html).
  26. Jahangiri, M., Soulouknga, M.H., Bardei, F.K., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., Akinlabi, E.T., Sichilalu, S.M. and Mostafaeipour, A., "Techno-econo-environmental optimal operation of grid-wind-solar electricity generation with hydrogen storage system for domestic scale, case study in Chad", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 44, (2019), 28613-28628. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.09.130).
  27. Jahangiri, M., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., Mostafaeipour, A., Rezaei, M., Yousefi, Y. and Pomares, L.M., "Using fuzzy MCDM technique to find the best location in Qatar for exploiting wind and solar energy to generate hydrogen and electricity", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 45, (2020), 13862-13875. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.03.101).
  28. Jahangiri, M., Nematollahi, O., Haghani, A., Raiesi, H.A. and Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., "An optimization of energy cost of clean hybrid solar-wind power plants in Iran", International Journal of Green Energy, Vol. 16, No. 15, (2019), 1422-1435. (https://doi.org/10.1080/15435075.2019.1671415).
  29. Rezaei, M., Khalilpour, K.R. and Jahangiri, M., "Multi-criteria location identification for wind/solar based hydrogen generation: The case of capital cities of a developing country", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 45, (2020), 33151-33168. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.09.138).
  30. Jahangiri, M., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., Riahi, R., Raeiszadeh, F. and Dehkordi, P.F., "Levelized cost of electricity for wind-solar power systems in Japan, a review", Journal of Power Technologies, Vol. 100, (2020), 188-210. (http://papers.itc.pw.edu.pl/index.php/JPT/article/view/1359).
  31. Pahlavan, S., Jahangiri, M., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A. and Rahimi Ariae, A., "Assessment of PV-based CHP system: The effect of heat recovery factor and fuel type", Journal of Energy Management and Technology, Vol. 3, (2019), 40-47. (https://dx.doi.org/10.22109/jemt.2018.137207.1106).
  32. Mostafaeipour, A., Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Dehshiri, S.J.H., Dehshiri, S.S.H., Sedaghat, A., Saghaei, H., Akinlabi, E.T., Sichilalu, S.M., Chowdhury, M.S. and Techato, K., "Statistical evaluation of using the new generation of wind turbines in South Africa", Energy Reports, Vol. 6, (2020), 2816-2827. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2020.09.035).
  33. Jahangiri, M., Rizi, R.A. and Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., "Feasibility study on simultaneous generation of electricity and heat using renewable energies in Zarrin Shahr, Iran", Sustainable Cities and Society, Vol. 38, (2018), 647-661. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.01.043).
  34. Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., Mostafaeipour, A. and Pomares, L.M., "Feasibility study on the provision of electricity and hydrogen for domestic purposes in the south of Iran using grid-connected renewable energy plants", Energy Strategy Reviews, Vol. 23, (2019), 23-32. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2018.12.003).
  35. Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Mostafaeipour, A., Khosravi, A. and Raeisi, H.A., "Assessment of solar-wind power plants in Afghanistan: A review”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 99, (2019), 169-190. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.10.003).
  36. Mostafaeipour, A., Rezaei, M., Jahangiri, M. and Qolipour, M., "Feasibility analysis of a new tree-shaped wind turbine for urban application: A case study", Energy & Environment, Vol. 31, (2020), 1230-1256. (https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0958305X19888878).
  37. Ebrahimi, S., Jahangiri, M., Raiesi, H.A. and Rahimi Ariae, A., "Optimal planning of on-grid hybrid microgrid for remote island using HOMER software, Kish in Iran", International Journal of Energetica, Vol. 3, (2018), 13-21. (https://dx.doi.org/10.47238/ijeca.v3i2.77).
  38. Jahangiri, M., Khosravi, A., Raiesi, H.A. and Mostafaeipour, A., "Analysis of standalone PV-based hybrid systems for power generation in rural area", Proceedings of International Conference on Fundamental Research in Electrical Engineering, (2017), 1-10. (https://civilica.com/doc/672922).
  39. Mostafaeipour, A., Sedaghat, A., Hedayatpour, M. and Jahangiri, M., "Location planning for production of bioethanol fuel from agricultural residues in the south of Caspian Sea", Environmental Development, Vol. 33, (2020), 100500. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2020.100500).
  40. Vahdatpour, S., Behzadfar, S., Siampour, L., Veisi, E. and Jahangiri, M., "Evaluation of off-grid hybrid renewable systems in the four climate regions of Iran", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (JREE), Vol. 4, (2017), 61-70. (https://dx.doi.org/10.30501/jree.2017.70107).
  41. Jahangiri, M., Nematollahi, O., Sedaghat, A. and Saghafian, M., "Techno-economical assessment of renewable energies integrated with fuel cell for off grid electrification: A case study for developing countries", Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol. 7, (2015), 023123. (https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4918592).
  42. Zaniani, J.R., Dehkordi, R.H., Bibak, A., Bayat, P. and Jahangiri, M., "Examining the possibility of using solar energy to provide warm water using RETScreen4 software (Case study: Nasr primary school of Pirbalut)", Current World Environment, Vol. 10 (Special Issue), (2015), 835. (http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CWE.10.Special-Issue1.101).
  43. Moein, M., Pahlavan, S., Jahangiri, M. and Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., "Finding the minimum distance from the national electricity grid for the cost-effective use of diesel generator-based hybrid renewable systems in Iran", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (JREE), Vol. 5, (2018), 8-22. (https://dx.doi.org/10.30501/jree.2018.88377).
  44. Rahimi Ariae, A., Jahangiri, M., Fakhr, M.H. and Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., "Simulation of biogas utilization effect on the economic efficiency and greenhouse gas emission: A case study in Isfahan, Iran", International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, Vol. 8, (2019), 149-160. (https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.8.2.149-160).
  45. Rezk, H., Alghassab, M. and Ziedan, H.A., "An optimal sizing of stand-alone hybrid PV-fuel cell-battery to desalinate seawater at saudi NEOM city", Processes, Vol. 8, (2020), 382. (https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8040382).
  46. Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Heidarian, S., Mostafaeipour, A., Raiesi, H.A. and Alidadi Shamsabadi, A., "Sensitivity analysis of using solar cells in regional electricity power supply of off-grid power systems in Iran", Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, Vol. 18, (2020), 1849-1866. (https://doi.org/10.1108/JEDT-10-2019-0268).
  47. Ghaderian, A., Jahangiri, M. and Saghaei, H., "Emergency power supply for NICU of a hospital by solar-wind-based system, a step towards sustainable development", Journal of Solar Energy Research, Vol. 5, (2020), 506-515. (https://dx.doi.org/10.22059/jser.2020.306423.1166).