Document Type : Research Article
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran.
This study conducts thermodynamic analysis on three trigeneration cycles including Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cold energy, and absorption refrigeration cycle in order to select appropriate working fluids. Different types of ORC cycles including simple ORC, regenerative, and ORC with Internal Heat Exchange (IHE) were investigated. For those types, the operation of six working fluids with different thermodynamic behaviors (R141b, R124, R236fa, R245fa, R600, and R123) was evaluated. In power plants, a low-grade heat source was provided by condensing boiler hot water energy while the thermal sink was prepared by cold energy of LNG. The effect of boiler temperature variation on energy and exergy efficiencies was investigated. According to the derived results, regenerative ORC-based systems possessed maximum energy and exergy efficiencies, while simple ORC and ORC with internal heat exchanger exhibited approximately the same quantities. Also, among these analyzed working fluids, R141b had the maximum energetic and exergetic efficiencies, while R124 and R236fa had minimum performance.
- Peris, B., Navarro-Esbrí, J., Mol´es, F. and Mota-Babiloni, A., "Experimental study of an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) for low grade waste heat recovery in a ceramic industry", Energy, Vol. 85, (2015), 534-542. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.03.065).
- Chatzopoulou, M.A. and Markides, C.N., "Thermodynamic optimisation of a high-electrical efficiency integrated internal combustion engine–Organic Rankine Cycle combined heat and power system", Applied Energy, Vol. 226, (2015), 1229-1251. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.022).
- Koç, Y., Ya˘glı, H. and Kalay, I., "Energy, exergy, and parametric analysis of simple and recuperative organic rankine cycles using a gas turbine-based combined cycle", Journal of Energy Engineering, Vol. 146, No. 5, (2020), 04020041. (https://ascelibrary.org/doi/10.1061/(ASCE)EY.1943-7897.0000693).
- Maizza, V. and Maizza, A., "Unconventional working fluids in organic Rankine cycles for waste energy recovery systems", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 21, (2001), 381-390. (https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-4311(00)00044-2).
- Wang, M., Wang, J., Zhao, Y., Zhao, P. and Dai, Y., "Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a solar-driven regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based on flat-plate solar collectors", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 50, (2013), 816-825. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2012.08.013).
- Safarian, S. and Aramoun, F., "Energy and exergy assessments of modified Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)", Energy Reports, Vol. 1, (2015), 1-7. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2014.10.003).
- Mosaffa, A.H., Mokarram, N.H. and Farshi, L.G., "Thermoeconomic analysis of combined different ORCs geothermal power plants and LNG cold energy", Geothermics, Vol. 65, (2017), 113-125. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2016.09.004).
- Habibzadeh, A. and Jafarmadar, S., "Thermodynamic based working fluid selection for high-temperature waste heat recovery of a turbocharged diesel engine using Organic Rankine Cycle", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (JREE), Vol. 6, (2019), 16-23. (https://doi.org/10.30501/jree.2019.99360).
- Behnam, P., Arefi, A. and Shafii, M.B., "Exergetic and thermoeconomic analysis of a trigeneration system producing electricity, hot water, and freshwater driven by low-temperature geothermal sources", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 157, (2018), 266-276. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.12.014).
- Akrami, E., Chitsaz, A., Nami, H. and Mahmoudi, S.M.S., "Energetic and exergoeconomic assessment of a multi-generation energy system based on indirect use of geothermal energy", Energy, Vol. 124, (2017), 625-639. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.02.006).
- Yaglı, H., Koç, Y. and Kalay, H., "Optimisation and exergy analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) used as a bottoming cycle in a cogeneration system producing steam and power", Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Vol. 44, (2021). (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2020.100985).
- Wang, N., Zhang, S., Fei, Z., Zhang, W., Shao, L. and Sardari, F., "Thermodynamic performance analysis a power and cooling generation system based on geothermal flash, organic Rankine cycles, and ejector refrigeration cycle; Application of zeotropic mixtures", Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Vol. 40, (2020), 100749. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2020.100749).
- Mosaffa, A.H. and Garousi Farshi, L., "Thermodynamic feasibility evaluation of an innovative salinity gradient solar ponds-based ORC using a zeotropic mixture as working fluid and LNG cold energy", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 186, (2021). (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2020.116488).
- Choi, H.W., Na, S., Hong, S.B., Chung, Y., Kim, D.K. and Kim, M.S., "Optimal design of organic Rankine cycle recovering LNG cold energy with finite heat exchanger size", Energy, Vol. 217, (2021). (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2020.119268).
- Sun, Z., Zhao, Q., Wu, Z. and Lin, K., "Thermodynamic comparison of modified Rankine cycle configurations for LNG cold energy recovery under different working conditions", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 239, (2021), 114141. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2021.114141).
- Tian, Z., Zeng, W., Gu, B., Zhang, Y. and Yuan, X. "Energy, exergy, and economic (3E) analysis of an organic Rankine cycle using zeotropic mixtures based on marine engine waste heat and LNG cold energy", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 228, (2021), 113657. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2020.113657).
- Saleh, B., "Performance analysis and working fluid selection for ejector refrigeration cycle", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 107, (2016), 114-124. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.06.147).
- Ehyaei, M.A., Ahmadi, A., Assad, M.E.H. and Rosen, M.A., "Investigation of an integrated system combining an Organic Rankine Cycle and absorption chiller driven by geothermal energy: Energy, exergy, and economic analyses and optimization", Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 258, (2020). 120780. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.120780).
- Saleh, B., Koglbauer, G., Wendland, M. and Fischer, J., "Working fluids for low temperature Organic Rankine Cycles", Energy, Vol. 32, (2007), 1210-1221. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2006.07.001).
- Hamdi, B., Mabrouk, M.T., Kairouani, L. and Kheiri, A. "Analysis and optimization of three main organic Rankine cycle configurations using a set of working fluids with different thermodynamic behaviors", The European Physical Journal Applied Physics, Vol. 78, (2017), 1-11. (https://doi.org/10.1051/epjap/2017170088).