Document Type : Research Article
1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran.
2 University of Sistan and Baluchestan Central Laboratory, Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran.
Response surface methodology is employed to statistically identify the significance of three parameters of separator assembly arrangement, wastewater flow rate, and relative flow patterns of anode and cathode influencing the generation of power and coulombic efficiency of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). Three different assemblies of Nylon-Cloth (NC), artificial rayon cloth as Absorbent Layer (AL), and J-Cloth (JC) were investigated as proton exchange mediums instead of common expensive polymeric membranes. Statistical analyses (ANOVA) revealed that although the addition of the AL after the JC layer had no significant impact on the enhancement of maximum power density, it could improve the coulombic efficiency of the MFCs by 15 %, owing to the crucial impact of oxygen permeability control between the MFC chambers. In the counter-current flow pattern, higher trans-membrane pressure and more oxygen concentration differences diminished the MFC performance and marked the importance of efficient separator layer arrangement, compared to co-current influents. The maximum power density of 285.89 mW/m2, the coulombic efficiency of 4.97 %, and the internal resistance of 323.9 Ω were achieved for the NC-JC-Al arrangement in the co-current mode along with the flow rate of 6.9 ml/min. The higher the flow rate of influent wastewater, the higher the performance of the MFCs.
- Microbial Fuel Cell
- Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
- Separator-Electrode Assembly
- Domestic Wastewater Treatment
- Logan, B.E., Microbial fuel cells, John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, (2008).
- Logan, B.E., Hamelers, B., Rozendal, R., Schroder, U., Keller, J., Freguia, S., Aelterman P., Verstraete W. and Rabaey K., "Microbial fuel cells: Methodology and technology", Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 17, (2006), 5181-5192. (https://doi.org/10.1021/es0605016).
- Lovley, D.R., "The microbe electric: Conversion of organic matter to electricity", Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Vol. 19, No. 6, (2008), 564-571. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2008.10.005).
- El Haj Assad, M., Khosravi, A., Malekan, M., Rosen, M.A. and Nazari, M.A., "Chapter 14 - Energy storage", Design and performance optimization of renewable energy systems, Academic Press, (2021), 205-219. (https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-821602-6.00016-X).
- Logan, B.E., "Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells", Nature Reviews Microbiology, Vol. 7, No. 5, (2009), 375-381. (https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2113).
- Tan, W.H., Chong, S., Fang, H.-W., Pan, K.-L., Mohamad, M., Lim, J.W., Tiong, T.J., Chan, Y.J., Huang, C.-M. and Yang, T.C.-K., "Microbial fuel cell technology—A critical review on scale-up issues", Processes, Vol. 9, No. 6, (2021), 985. (https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9060985).
- Kataki, S., Chatterjee, S., Vairale, M.G., Sharma, S., Dwivedi, S.K. and Gupta, D.K., "Constructed wetland, an eco-technology for wastewater treatment: A review on various aspects of microbial fuel cell integration, low temperature strategies and life cycle impact of the technology", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 148, No. (2021), 111261. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2021.111261).
- You, S., Zhao, Q., Zhang, J., Jiang, J. and Zhao, S., "A microbial fuel cell using permanganate as the cathodic electron acceptor", Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 162, No. 2, (2006), 1409-1415. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.07.063).
- Fornero, J.J., Rosenbaum, M., Cotta, M.A. and Angenent, L.T., "Microbial fuel cell performance with a pressurized cathode chamber", Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, No. 22, (2008), 8578-8584. (https://doi.org/10.1021/es8015292).
- Oh, S., Min, B. and Logan, B.E., "Cathode performance as a factor in electricity generation in microbial fuel cells", Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 38, No. 18, (2004), 4900-4944. (https://doi.org/10.1021/es049422p).
- Rabaey, K. and Verstraete, W., "Microbial fuel cells: Novel biotechnology for energy generation", Trends in Biotechnology, Vol. 23, No. 6, (2005), 291-298. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2005.04.008).
- Miroliaei, M.R., Samimi, A., Mohebbi‐Kalhori, D., Khorram, M. and Qasemi, A., "Competition between E. coli and Shewanella sp. for electricity generation in air cathode MFC in presence of methylene blue as artificial mediator", Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, Vol. 34, No. 4, (2015), 1097-1105. (https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.12111).
- Zhuwei, D.U., Haoran, L.I. and Tingyue, G.U., "A state of the art review on microbial fuel cells: A promising technology for wastewater treatment and bioenergy", Biotechnology Advances, Vol. 25, No. 5, (2007), 464-482. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2007.05.004).
- Oh, S.T., Kim, J.R., Premier, G.C., Lee, T.H., Kim, C. and Sloan, W.T., "Sustainable wastewater treatment: How might microbial fuel cells contribute", Biotechnology Advances, Vol. 28, No. 6, (2010), 871-881. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2010.07.008).
- Ouitrakul, S., Sriyudthsak, M., Charojrochkul, S. and Kakizono, T., "Impedance analysis of bio-fuel cell electrodes", Biosensors and Bioelectronics, , Vol. 23, No. 5, (2007), 721-772. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2007.08.012).
- Zhou , M.C., Luo , M.J., He, H. and Jin, T., "An overview of electrode materials in microbial fuel cells", Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 196, No. 10, (2011), 4427-4443. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.01.012).
- Khalili, H.-B., Mohebbi-Kalhori, D. and Afarani, M.S., "Microbial fuel cell (MFC) using commercially available unglazed ceramic wares: Low-cost ceramic separators suitable for scale-up", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 42, No. 12, (2017), 8233-8241. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.02.095).
- Yousefi, V., Mohebbi-Kalhori, D. and Samimi, A., "Ceramic-based microbial fuel cells (MFCs): A review", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 42, No. 3, (2017), 1672-1690. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.06.054).
- Li, W.-W., Sheng, G.-P., Liu, X.-W. and Yu, H.-Q., "Recent advances in the separators for microbial fuel cells", Bioresource Technology, Vol. 102, No. 1, (2011), 244-252. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.03.090).
- Yousefi, V., Mohebbi-Kalhori, D., Samimi, A. and Salari, M., "Effect of separator electrode assembly (SEA) design and mode of operation on the performance of continuous tubular microbial fuel cells (MFCs)", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 41, No. 1, (2016), 597-606. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.11.018).
- Yousefi, V., Mohebbi-Kalhori, D. and Samimi, A., "Equivalent electrical circuit modeling of ceramic-based microbial fuel cells using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (JREE), Vol. 6, No. 1, (2019), 21-28. (https://doi.org/10.30501/JREE.2019.95555).
- Cheraghipoor, M., Mohebbi-Kalhori, D., Noroozifar, M. and Maghsoodlou, M.T., "Comparative study of bioelectricity generation in a microbial fuel cell using ceramic membranes made of ceramic powder, Kalporgan's soil, and acid leached Kalporgan's soil", Energy, Vol. 178, (2019), 368-377. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2019.04.124).
- Cheraghipoor, M., Mohebbi-Kalhori, D., Noroozifar, M. and Maghsoodlou, M.T., "Production of greener energy in microbial fuel cell with ceramic separator fabricated using native soils: Effect of lattice and porous SiO2", Fuel, Vol. 284, (2021), 118938. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118938).
- Rodríguez, J., Mais, L., Campana, R., Piroddi, L., Mascia, M., Gurauskis, J., Vacca, A. and Palmas, S., "Comprehensive characterization of a cost-effective microbial fuel cell with Pt-free catalyst cathode and slip-casted ceramic membrane", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 46, No. 51, (2021). (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2021.01.066).
- Yousefi, V., Mohebbi-Kalhori, D. and Samimi, A., "Application of layer-by-layer assembled chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposite as oxygen barrier film over the ceramic separator of the microbial fuel cell", Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 283, (2018), 234-247. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2018.06.173).
- Yousefi, V., Mohebbi-Kalhori, D. and Samimi, A., "Start-up investigation of the self-assembled chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposite over the ceramic support as a low-cost membrane for microbial fuel cell application", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 45, No. 7, (2020), 4804-4820. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.11.216).
- Zhang, F., Ahn, Y. and Logan, B.E., "Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations", Bioresource Technology, Vol. 152, (2014), 46-52. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.10.103).
- Ahn, Y. and Logan, B.E., "Domestic wastewater treatment using multi-electrode continuous flow MFCs with a separator electrode assembly design", Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 97, No. 1, (2013), 409-416. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-012-4455-8).
- Steinberg, D.M. and Bursztyn, D., "Response surface methodology in biotechnology", Quality Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 2, (2010), 78-87. (https://doi.org/10.1080/08982110903510388).
- Yousefi, V. and Kariminia, H.-R., "Statistical analysis for enzymatic decolorization of acid orange 7 by Coprinus cinereus peroxidase", International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, Vol. 64, No. 3, (2010), 245-252. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2010.02.003).
- Kariminia, H.-R. and Yousefi, V., "Statistical optimization of reactive blue 221 decolorization by fungal peroxidise", Water production and wastewater treatment, NOVA publisher, (2011), Chap. 12, 215-224. (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286857603_Statistical_optimization_of_reactive_blue_221_decolorization_by_fungal_peroxidise)
- Raychaudhuri, A. and Behera, M., "Review of the process optimization in microbial fuel cell using design of experiment methodology", Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste, Vol. 24, No. 3, (2020), 04020013. (https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000503).
- Jang, J.K., Pham, T.H., Chang, I.S., Kang, K.H., Moon, H. and Chok, S., "Construction and operation of a novel mediator-and membraneless microbial fuel cell", Process Biochem, Vol. 39, No. 8, (2004), 1007-1012. (https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(03)00203-6).
- Choi, S., Kim, J.R., Cha, J., Kim, Y., Premier, G.C. and Kim, C., "Enhanced power production of a membrane electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (MFC) using a cost effective poly [2,5-benzimidazole] (ABPBI) impregnated non-woven fabric filter", Bioresource Technology, Vol. 128, (2013), 14-21. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.013).