Document Type : Research Article


1 School of Mechanical and Construction, Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology, Avadi, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

2 School of Mechanical Engineering, VIT Bhopal University, Madhya Pradesh, India.

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.


Environmental sustainability encompasses various problems including climate change, clean air, renewable energy, non-toxic environments, and capacity to live in a healthy community. Many researchers focus their attention on alternative energy sources, such as ethanol and hydroxy gas, to enhance environmental health and quality of life. The introduction of hydroxy gas as a clean source of energy is gaining significant traction. Also, ethanol has a greater octane number than gasoline. Therefore, the ethanol–gasoline blend has a higher octane number than conventional gasoline. A new combination of hydroxy gas, ethanol, and gasoline is environmentally benign while significantly improving the performance of gasoline engines. This paper tested hydroxy gas in a 197-cc gasoline engine power generator powered with ethanol–gasoline blend. The results demonstrated that thermal efficiency increased up to 23.6 % and fuel consumption decreased up to 36 % on a volume basis, which was a significant improvement over the base engine. Furthermore, the hazardous carbon monoxide reduction reached 11.45 % and the unburned hydrocarbon emissions reached 17.6 %.


Main Subjects

  1. Shimada, A., Shirakawa, Y. and Ishikawa, T., "Improved thermal efficiency using hydrous ethanol reforming in advanced spark-ignition engines", Proceedings of SAE 2016 International Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting, (2016). (
  2. Köten, H., Karagöz, Y. and Balcı, Ö., "Effect of different levels of ethanol addition on performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a gasoline engine", Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 7, (2020), 1-13. (
  3. Tibaquirá, J.E., Huertas, J.I., Ospina, S., Quirama, L.F. and Niño, J.E., "The effect of using ethanol-gasoline blends on the mechanical, energy and environmental performance of in-use vehicles", Energies, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2018), 221. (
  4. Doğan, B., Derviş, E., Hayri, Y. and Evren, K., "The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on performance and exhaust emissions of a spark ignition engine through exergy analysis", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 120, (2017), 433-443. (
  5. Najafi, G., Ghobadian, B., Yusaf, T., Safieddin Ardebili, S.M. and Mamat, R., "Optimization of performance and exhaust emission parameters of a SI (Spark Ignition) engine with gasoline–ethanol blended fuels using response surface methodology", Energy, Vol. 90, Part 2, (2015), 1815-1829. (
  6. Najafi, B., Haghighatshoar, F., Ardabili, S., Band, Sh.S., Chau, K.W., and Mosavi, A., "Effects of low-level hydroxy as a gaseous additive on performance and emission characteristics of a dual fuel diesel engine fueled by diesel/biodiesel blends", Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 15, No. 1, (2021), 236-250. (
  7. El-Kassaby, M.M., Eldrainy, Y.A., Khidr, M.E. and Khidr, K.I., "Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on gasoline engine performance and emissions", Alexandria Engineering Journal, Vol. 55, No. 1, (2016), 243-251. (
  8. Çakmak, A., Girisen, A.R. and Ozcan, H., "Effects of hydroxy gas addition on the performance and emission characteristics of liquefied petroleum gas-powered lean-operated spark-ignition engine", SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, Vol. 14, No. 1, (2021), 41-54. (
  9. Arjun, T.B., Atul, K.P., Muraleedharan, A.P., Walton, P.A., Bijinraj, P.B. and Raj, A.A., "A review on analysis of HHO gas in IC engines", Materials Today: Proceedings, Vol. 11, Part 3, (2019), 1117-1129. (
  10. Murali, K.V., Haritha, R.A., Sandeep, K.M. and Raghu, A., "Effect of hydroxy gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in variable compression spark ignition engine", Materials Today: Proceedings, Vol. 24, Part 2, (2020), 930-936. (
  11. Badr, M.H., Hassan, M.I. and EL-Hamalawy, A.A., "An on-demand hydrogen cell for automobile fuel consumption efficiency", International Journal of Green Energy, Vol. 12, No. 11, (2015), 1086-1090. (
  12. Musmar, S.A. and Al-Rousan., A.A, "Effect of HHO gas on combustion emissions in gasoline engines", Fuel, Vol. 90, No. 10, (2011), 3066-3070. (
  13. Yilmaz, A.C., Uludamar, E. and Aydin, K., "Effect of hydroxy (HHO) gas addition on performance and exhaust emissions in compression ignition engines", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 35, No. 20, (2010), 11366-11372. (
  14. Wang, S., Ji, C., Zhang, B. and Liu, X., "Performance of a hydroxygen-blended gasoline engine at different hydrogen volume fractions in the hydroxygen", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 37, No. 17, (2012), 13209-13218. (
  15. Patil, N.N., Chavan, C.B., More, A.S. and Baskar, P., "Generation of oxy-hydrogen gas and its effect on performance of spark ignition engine", IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 263, No. 6, (2017). (
  16. Nanthagopal, K., Subbarao, R., Elango, T., Baskar, P. and Annamalai, K., "Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas - A futuristic fuel for internal combustion engines", Thermal Science, Vol. 15, No. 4, (2011), 1145-1154. (
  17. Alam, N. and Pandey, K.M., "Experimental study of hydroxy gas (HHO) production with variation in current, voltage and electrolyte concentration", IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 225, No. 1, (2017). (
  18. Hariharan, N., Senthil, V., Karthic, S.V. and Krishnamoorthi, M., "Influence of hydrogen enrichment on the combustion, efficiency and emissions of dual fuel engine", Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, (2019), 1-18. (
  19. Shivaprasad, K.V., Raviteja, S., Chitragar, P. and Kumar, G.N., "Experimental investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on combustion performance and emissions characteristics of a spark ignition high speed gasoline engine", Procedia Technology, Vol. 14, (2014), 141-148. (
  20. Rajasekaran, T., Duraiswamy, K., Bharathiraja, M. and Poovaragavan., S., "Characteristics of engine at various speed conditions by mixing of HHO with gasoline and LPG", ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 1, (2015), 46-51. (
  21. Bari, S. and Mohammad, E.M., "Effect of H2/O2 addition in increasing the thermal efficiency of a diesel engine", Fuel, Vol. 89, No. 2, (2010), 378-383. (
  22. Ji, C., Zhang, B. and Wang, S., "Enhancing the performance of a spark-ignition methanol engine with hydrogen addition", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 38, No. 18, (2013), 7490-7498. (
  23. Jakliński, P. and Czarnigowski, J., "An experimental investigation of the impact of added HHO gas on automotive emissions under idle conditions", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 45, No. 23, (2020), 13119-13128. (
  24. Kanimozhi, B., Kumar, G., Alsehli, M., Elfasakhany, A., Veeman, D., Balaji, S., Thiran, T., Praveen K.T.R. and Sekar, M., "Effects of oxyhydrogen on the CI engine fueled with the biodiesel blends: A performance, combustion and emission characteristics study", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, (2021). (
  25. Usman, M., Hayat, N. and Bhutta, M.M.A., "SI engine fueled with gasoline, CNG and CNG-HHO blend: comparative evaluation of performance, emission and lubrication oil deterioration", Journal of Thermal Science, Vol. 30, No. 4, (2021), 1199-1211. (
  26. Setyono, G., Anas, A.A. and Lillahulhaq, Z., "Hydroxy gas (HHO) supplement of ethanol fuel mixture in a single-cylinder spark-ignition matic-engine", Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, Vol. 5, No. 2, (2020), 114-121. (
  27. Thangavel, V., Momula, S.Y., Gosala, D.B. and Asvathanarayanan, R., "Experimental studies on simultaneous injection of ethanol–gasoline and n-butanol–gasoline in the intake port of a four stroke SI Engine", Renewable Energy, Vol. 91, (2016), 347-360. (
  28. Usman, M., Farooq, M., Naqvi, M., Saleem, M.W., Hussain, J., Naqvi, S.R., Jahangir, S., Jazim, U.H.M., Idrees, S. and Anukam, A., "Use of gasoline, LPG and LPG-HHO blend in SI engine: A comparative performance for emission control and sustainable environment", Processes, Vol. 8, No. 1, (2020). (
  29. Shajahan, M.I., Sambandam, P., Michael, J.J. and Abdelmoneam, H.H.M., "Environmental impact of oxyhydrogen addition on high-speed gasoline engine characteristics", Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, (2020), 1-14. (
  30. Baltacioglu, M.K., Kenanoglu, R. and Aydın, K., "HHO enrichment of bio-diesohol fuel blends in a single cylinder diesel engine", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 44, No. 34, (2019), 18993-18994. (
  31. Karagöz, Y., Balcı, Ö., Orak, E. and Habib, M.S., "Effect of hydrogen addition using on-board alkaline electrolyser on SI engine emissions and combustion", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 43, No. 24, (2018), 11275-11285. (
  32. Brayek, M., Jemni, M.A., Kantchev, G. and Abid, M.S., "Effect of hydrogen–oxygen mixture addition on exhaust emissions and performance of a spark ignition engine", Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Vol. 41, No. 11, (2016), 4635-4642. (
  33. Kazim, A.H., Khan, M.B., Nazir, R., Shabbir, A., Abbasi, M.S., Abdul Rab, H., Shahid, Q.N., "Effects of oxyhydrogen gas induction on the performance of a small-capacity diesel engine”, Science Progress, Vol. 103, No. 2, (2020). (
  34. Lin, W.Y., Chang, Y.Y. and Hsieh, Y.R., "Effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on small engine generator energy efficiency and exhaust emission", Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 60, No. 2, (2010), 142-148. (
  35. Baltacıoğlu, M.K., "A novel application of pulse width modulation technique on hydroxy gas production", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 44, No. 20, (2019), 9726-9734. (
  36. Guillin-Estrada, W., Maestre-Cambronel, D., Bula-Silvera, A., Gonzalez-Quiroga, A. and Duarte-Forero, J., "Combustion and performance evaluation of a spark ignition engine operating with acetone–butanol–ethanol and hydroxy", Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 11, (2021). (