Document Type : Research Article


Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, P. O. Box: 67144-14971, Kermanshah, Iran.


The ability of power systems against severe events shows their increased resilience, which in turn reduces the operation costs and recovery time of the system. This study presents a new resilient stochastic unit commitment model using the frequency change rate as a new index of system resilience. Furthermore, uncertainties of wind and solar power plants and demanded load are considered simultaneously. In the proposed method that considers the occurrence of a destructive incident in important production units in the worst-case scenarios and by using the generation capacity, adaptive frequency load shedding, and interrupting contracts, an effective strategy was provided to solve the unit commitment problem of thermal units to prevent instability in system frequency and to minimize unwanted load shedding. The proposed model was tested and evaluated on the IEEE 39-bus system with a wind power plant and a solar power plant. Moreover, the results obtained from simulation were reported. The effectiveness of this innovative approach in increasing the resilience of the power system against different degrees of uncertainty was confirmed based on the results.


Main Subjects

  1. Khani, K., Shahgholian, Gh., Fani, B., Moazzami, M., Mahdavian, M. and Janghorbani, M., "A comparsion of different structures in wind energy conversion systems", Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Electrical Engineering/Electronics, Computer, Telecommunications and Information Technology (ECTI-CON), Phuket, Thailand, (2017), 58-61. (
  2. Wang, J., Zobaa, A.F., Huang, C. and Chen, C., "Day-ahead allocation of operation reserve in composite power systems with large-scale centralized wind farms", Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, Vol. 4, No. 2, (2016), 238-247. (
  3. Hosseini, E., Shahgholian, Gh., Mahdavi-Nasab, H. and Mesrinejad, F., "Variable speed wind turbine pitch angle control using three-term fuzzy controller", International Journal of Smart Electrical Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 2, (2022), 63-70. (
  4. Huang, Y., Pardalos, P.M. and Zheng, Q.P., Electrical power unit commitment: Deterministic and two-stage stochastic programming models and algorithms, Springer, (2017), 50-80. (
  5. Scuzziato, M.R., Finardi, E.C. and Frangioni, A., "Solving stochastic hydrothermal unit commitment with a new primal recovery technique based on Lagrangian solutions", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 127, (2021), 1-11. (
  6. 6. Li, G., Li, G. and Zhou, M., "Model and application of renewable energy accommodation capacity calculation considering utilization level of inter-provincial tie-line", Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, V 4, No. 1, (2019), 1-12. (
  7. Håberg, M., "Fundamentals and recent developments in stochastic unit commitment", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 109, (2019), 38-48. (
  8. Mohammadi, F. and Ardakani, M.S., "Tractable stochastic unit commitment for large systems during predictable hazards", IEEE Access, Vol. 8, (2020), 115078-115088. (
  9. Gholami, A., Shekari, T., Aminifar, F. and Shahidehpour, M., "Microgrid scheduling with uncertainty: The quest for resilience", IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 7, No. 6, (2016), 2849-2858. (
  10. Gholami, A., Aminifar, F. and Shahidehpour, M., "Front lines against the darkness: Enhancing the resilience of the electricity grid through microgrid facilities", IEEE Electrification Magazine, Vol. 4, No. 1, (2016), 18-24. (
  11. Fesagandis, H.S., Jalali, M., Zare, K., Abapour, M. and Karimipour, H., "Resilient scheduling of networked microgrids against real-time failures", IEEE Access, Vol. 9, (2021), 21443-21456. (
  12. Mishra, D.K., Ghadi, M.J., Azizivahed, A., Li, L. and Zhang, J., "A review on resilience studies in active distribution systems", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 135, (2021), 1-20. (
  13. Ezzeldin, M. and El-dakhakhni, W.E., "Robustness of Ontario power network under systemic risks", Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, Vol. 6, No. 3-4, (2019), 252-271. (
  14. Li, B., Boateng, D.O., Gel, Y.R. and Zhang, J., "A hybrid approach for transmission grid resilience assessment using reliability metrics and power system local network topology", Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, Vol. 6, No. 1-2, (2021), 26-41. (
  15. Gholami, A., Shekari, T. and Grijalva, S., "Proactive management of microgrids for resiliency enhancement an adaptive robust approach", IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, Vol. 10, No. 1, (2019), 470-480. (
  16. Chen, P.C. and Kezunovic, M., "Fuzzy logic approach to predictive risk analysis in distribution outage management", IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 7, No. 6, (2016), 2827–2836. (
  17. Trakas, D.N. and Hatziargyriou, N.D., "Resilience constrained day-ahead unit commitment under extreme weather events", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 35, No. 2, (2019), 1242-1253. (
  18. Zheng, Q.P., Wang, J. and Liu, A.L., "Stochastic optimization for unit commitment—A review", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 30, No. 4, (2015), 1913-1924. (
  19. Cao, Y., Huang, L., Li, Y., Jermsittiparsert, K., Nezamabad, H.A. and Nojavan, S., "Optimal scheduling of electric vehicles aggregator under market price uncertainty using robust optimization technique", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 117, (2020), 1-7. (
  20. Shahgholian, Gh., "A brief review on microgrids: Operation, applications, modeling, and control", Electrical Energy Systems, Vol. 31, No. 6, (2021), 1-28. (
  21. Marzband, M., Moghaddam, M.M., Akorede, M.F. and Khomeyrani, G., "Adaptive load shedding scheme for frequency stability enhancement in microgrids", Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 140, (2016), 78-86. (
  22. Choopani, K., Effatnejad, R. and Hedayati, M., "Coordination of energy storage and wind power plant considering energy and reserve market for a resilience smart grid", Journal of Energy Storage, Vol. 30, (2020), 1-8. (
  23. Vahedipour, M., Moghaddam, A.A. and Guerrero, J.M., "Evaluation of reliability in risk-constrained scheduling of autonomous microgrids with demand response and renewable resources", IET Renewable Power Generation, Vol. 12, No. 6, (2018), 657-667. (
  24. Wang, Y., Huang, L., Shahidehpour, M., Lai, L.L. and Zhou, Y., "Impact of cascading and common-cause outages on resilience-constrained optimal economic operation of power systems", IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2020), 590-601. (
  25. Eskandarpour, R., Khodaei, A. and Lin, J., "Event-driven security constrained unit commitment with component outage estimation based on machine learning method", Proceedings of the North American Power Symposium (NAPS), Denver, CO, USA, (2016), 1-6. (
  26. hao, T., Zhang, H., Liu, X., Yao, S. and Wang, P., "Resilient unit commitment for day-ahead market considering probabilistic impacts of hurricanes", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 36, No. 2, (2021), 1082-1094. (
  27. Wang, Y., Li, Z., Shahidehpour, M., Wu, L., Guo, C.X. and Zhu, B., "Stochastic co-optimization of midterm and short-term maintenance outage scheduling considering covariates in power systems", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 31, No. 6, (2016), 4795-4805. (
  28. Sayyed-Mahdavi, S. and Javidi, M.H., "VPP decision making in power markets using benders decomposition", International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, Vol. 24, No. 7, (2014), 960-975. (
  29. Mohammadi, F., Sahraei-Ardakani, S., Trakas, D. and Hatziargyriou, N.D., "Machine learning assisted stochastic unit commitment during hurricanes with predictable line outages", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 36, No. 6, (2021), 5131-5142. (
  30. Zakariazadeh, A., Jadid, S. and Siano, P., "Economic-environmental energy and reserve scheduling of smart distribution systems: A multi objective mathematical programming approach", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 78, (2014), 151-164. (
  31. Reddy, S.S., Bijwe, P.R. and Abhyankar, A.R., "Joint energy and spinning reserve market clearing incorporating wind power and load forecast uncertainties", IEEE Systems Journals, Vol. 9, No. 1, (2015), 152-164. (
  32. Arab, A., Khodaei, A., Khator, S.K. and Han, Z., "Electric power grid restoration considering disaster economics", IEEE Access, Vol. 4, (2016), 639-649. (
  33. Roy, P.K., "Solution of unit commitment problem using gravitational search algorithm", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 53, (2013), 85-94. (
  34. Govardhan, M. and Roy, R., "Economic analysis of unit commitment with distributed energy resources", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 71, (2015), 1-14. (
  35. Mahmutoğulları, A.I., Ahmed, S., Çavuş, Ö. and Aktürk, M.S., "The value of multi-stage stochastic programming in risk-averse unit commitment under uncertainty", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 4, No. 5, (2019), 3667-3676. (
  36. Tielens, P. and Hertem, D., "Grid inertia and frequency control in power systems with high penetration of renewables", Proceedings of the Young Researchers Symposium in Electrical Power Engineering, Delft, Netherlands, (2012), 1-6. (
  37. Carrión, M. and Arroyo, J.M., "A computationally efficient mixed-integer linear formulation for the thermal unit commitment problem", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 21, No. 3, (2006), 1371-1378. (
  38. Venkatesan, T. and Sanavullah, M.Y., "SFLA approach to solve PBUC problem with emission limitation ", International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 46, (2013), 1-9. (
  39. Elia Power System, (2021). (, (Accessed: 11 November 2021).
  40. Wan, Y.H., "Wind power plant behaviors: Analyses of long-term wind power data", National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Report, Golden, CO, USA, (2004). (, (Accessed: 1 September 2004).
  41. Hummon, M., Cochran, J., Weekley, A., Lopez, A., Zhang, J. and Stoltenberg, B., "Variability of photovoltaic power in the state of gujarat using high resolution solar data", National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Report, Golden, CO, USA, (2014). (, (Accessed: 1 March 2014).
  42. Wood, A.J., Wollenberg, B.F. and Sheblé, G.B., Power generation, operation, and control, John Wiley & Sons, (2013), 147-167. (