Document Type : Research Article


Department of Building and Environment, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box: 1684613114, Tehran, Iran.



The height of buildings is one of the main features of urban configuration that affects energy consumption. However, to our knowledge, the complexity of relationships between the height parameters and energy use in urban blocks is poorly understood. In this context, the present study investigates the effect of the height distribution of buildings located in a residential complex on the energy consumption required for cooling and heating. This research simulates different possible layouts through computational software. For this purpose, first, the density of a residential complex was determined based on the rules and regulations of Tehran city and according to the site dimensions and certain site coverage. Then, the required building density was distributed in different layouts based on their diversity at different heights. The product of this stage involved 7 different layouts in which the height varied from 1 floor to the maximum number calculated in each part of the simulation. In the next step, the annual energy consumption for cooling and heating the complex was calculated for each of these layouts and compared with each other. The parametric generative model was created in the Grasshopper plugin from Rhino software, and the energy consumption was evaluated with the Honeybee plugin over one year. Also, the research findings were validated through DesignBuilder software using the EnergyPlus engine. The results of the energy simulation indicate that the height distribution of the blocks can have a significant effect on energy consumption. In the optimal case, proper layout reduces the annual cooling and heating energy consumption by 28% and 13%, respectively. Therefore, achieving an optimal value for each of the cooling and heating loads depends on the specific priorities and conditions of the design project. If the design project's priority is to reduce heating energy consumption, increasing the height and distributing the floors evenly between the blocks is a better answer. However, if the priority is to mitigate cooling energy consumption, the optimal layout can include low-rise blocks and a single very high-rise block.


Main Subjects

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