Document Type : Research Article
Department of Building and Environment, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box: 1684613114, Tehran, Iran.
The height of buildings is one of the main features of urban configuration that affects energy consumption. However, to our knowledge, the complexity of relationships between the height parameters and energy use in urban blocks is poorly understood. In this context, the present study investigates the effect of the height distribution of buildings located in a residential complex on the energy consumption required for cooling and heating. This research simulates different possible layouts through computational software. For this purpose, first, the density of a residential complex was determined based on the rules and regulations of Tehran city and according to the site dimensions and certain site coverage. Then, the required building density was distributed in different layouts based on their diversity at different heights. The product of this stage involved 7 different layouts in which the height varied from 1 floor to the maximum number calculated in each part of the simulation. In the next step, the annual energy consumption for cooling and heating the complex was calculated for each of these layouts and compared with each other. The parametric generative model was created in the Grasshopper plugin from Rhino software, and the energy consumption was evaluated with the Honeybee plugin over one year. Also, the research findings were validated through DesignBuilder software using the EnergyPlus engine. The results of the energy simulation indicate that the height distribution of the blocks can have a significant effect on energy consumption. In the optimal case, proper layout reduces the annual cooling and heating energy consumption by 28% and 13%, respectively. Therefore, achieving an optimal value for each of the cooling and heating loads depends on the specific priorities and conditions of the design project. If the design project's priority is to reduce heating energy consumption, increasing the height and distributing the floors evenly between the blocks is a better answer. However, if the priority is to mitigate cooling energy consumption, the optimal layout can include low-rise blocks and a single very high-rise block.
- Poponi, D. et al., Energy technology perspectives 2016: towards sustainable urban energy systems, International Energy Agency, Paris, (2016). (https://www.iea.org/reports/energy-technology-perspectives-2016).
- Resch, E., Bohne, R. A., Kvamsdal, T. and Lohne, J. “Impact of urban density and building height on energy use in cities”, Energy Procedia, Vol. 96, (2016), 800–814. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2016.09.142).
- Li, Z., Chen, H., Lin, B. and Zhu, Y., “Fast bidirectional building performance optimization at the early design stage”, Building Simulation, Vol. 11, No. 4, (2018), 647–661. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-018-0432-1).
- Konis, K., Gamas, A. and Kensek, K., “Passive performance and building form: An optimization framework for early-stage design support”, Sol. Energy, Vol. 125, (2016), 161–179. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2015.12.020).
- Toutou, A., Fikry, M. and Mohamed, W., “The parametric based optimization framework daylighting and energy performance in residential buildings in hot arid zone”, Alexandria Eng. J., Vol. 57, No. 4, (2018), 3595–3608. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2018.04.006).
- Zhang, J., Liu, N. and Wang, S., “A parametric approach for performance optimization of residential building design in Beijing”, Building Simulation, Vol. 13, No. 2, (2020), 223–235. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-019-0571-z).
- Rode, P., Keim, C., Robazza, G., Viejo, P. and Schofield, J., “Cities and energy: urban morphology and residential heat-energy demand”, Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des., Vol. 41, No. 1, (2014), 138–162. (https://doi.org/10.1068/b39065).
- Wong, N. H. et al., “Evaluation of the impact of the surrounding urban morphology on building energy consumption”, Sol. Energy, Vol. 85, No. 1, (2011), 57–71. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2010.11.002).
- Steemers, K., “Cities, energy and comfort: a PLEA 2000 review”, Energy Build., Vol. 35, No. 1, (2003), 1–2. (https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-7788(02)00074-9).
- Chen, Y., Wu, J., Yu, K. and Wang, D., “Evaluating the impact of the building density and height on the block surface temperature”, Build. Environ., Vol. 168, (2020), 106493. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106493).
- Asfour, O. S. and Alshawaf, E. S., “Effect of housing density on energy efficiency of buildings located in hot climates”, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 91, (2015), 131–138. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.01.030).
- Yang, X. and Li, Y., “The impact of building density and building height heterogeneity on average urban albedo and street surface temperature”, Build. Environ., Vol. 90, (2015), 146–156. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.03.037).
- Salvati, A., Monti, P., Coch Roura, H. and Cecere, C., “Climatic performance of urban textures: Analysis tools for a Mediterranean urban context”, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 185, (2019), 162–179. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.12.024).
- Trepci, E., Maghelal, P. and Azar, E., “Effect of densification and compactness on urban building energy consumption: Case of a Transit-Oriented Development in Dallas, TX”, Sustain. Cities Soc., Vol. 56, (2020), 101987. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2019.101987).
- Salvati, A., Coch, H. and Morganti, M., “Effects of urban compactness on the building energy performance in Mediterranean climate”, Energy Procedia, Vol. 122, (2017), 499–504. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.303).
- Li, C., Song, Y. and Kaza, N., “Urban form and household electricity consumption: A multilevel study”, Energy Build., Vol. 158, (2018), 181–193. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.10.007).
- Chen, L., Hang, J., Sandberg, M., Claesson, L., Di Sabatino, S. and Wigo, H., “The impacts of building height variations and building packing densities on flow adjustment and city breathability in idealized urban models”, Building and Environment, Vol. 118, (2017), 344–361. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.03.042).
- Deng, J.-Y., Wong, N. H. and Zheng, X., “The study of the effects of building arrangement on microclimate and energy demand of CBD in Nanjing, China”, Procedia Eng., Vol. 169, (2016), 44–54. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.10.006).
- Shareef, S. and Altan, H., “Urban block configuration and the impact on energy consumption: A case study of sinuous morphology”, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., Vol. 163, (2022), 112507. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2022.112507).
- Quan, S. J., “Energy efficient neighborhood design under residential zoning regulations in Shanghai”, Energy Procedia, Vol. 143, (2017), 865–872. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.775).
- Vartholomaios, A., “A parametric sensitivity analysis of the influence of urban form on domestic energy consumption for heating and cooling in a Mediterranean city”, Sustain. cities Soc., Vol. 28, (2017), 135–145. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2016.09.006).
- Mirashk-Daghiyan, M., Dehghan-Touran-Poshti, A., Shahcheragi, A. and Kaboli, M. H., “The effect of surrounding buildings’ height and the width of the street on a building’s energy consumption”, Int. J. Energy Environ. Eng., Vol. 13, No. 1, (2022), 207–217. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s40095-021-00420-1).
- Shareef, S., “The impact of urban morphology and building’s height diversity on energy consumption at urban scale. The case study of Dubai”, Build. Environ., Vol. 194, (2021), 107675. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.107675).
- Xu, X., AzariJafari, H., Gregory, J., Norford, L. and Kirchain, R., “An integrated model for quantifying the impacts of pavement albedo and urban morphology on building energy demand”, Energy Build., Vol. 211, (2020), 109759. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2020.109759).
- Quan, S. J., Li, Q., Augenbroe, G., Brown, J. and Yang, P. P.-J., “Urban data and building energy modeling: A GIS-based urban building energy modeling system using the urban-EPC engine”, Planning support systems and smart cities, Springer, (2015), 447–469. (https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18368-8_24).
- Terjung, W. H. and Louie, S. S. F., “Solar radiation and urban heat islands”, Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr., Vol. 63, No. 2, (1973), 181–207. (https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1973.tb00918.x).
- Leng, H., Chen, X., Ma, Y., Wong, N. H. and Ming, T., “Urban morphology and building heating energy consumption: Evidence from Harbin, a severe cold region city”, Energy Build., Vol. 224, (2020), 110143. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2020.110143).
- Mohajeri, N., Upadhyay, G., Gudmundsson, A., Assouline, D., Kämpf, J. and Scartezzini, J.-L. “Effects of urban compactness on solar energy potential”, Renew. Energy, Vol. 93, (2016), 469–482. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.02.053).
- Sekhar Roy, S., Roy, R. and Balas, V. E., “Estimating heating load in buildings using multivariate adaptive regression splines, extreme learning machine, a hybrid model of MARS and ELM”, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., Vol. 82, (2018), 4256–4268. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.249).
- Seyedzadeh, S., Rahimian, F., Glesk, I. and Roper, M., “Machine learning for estimation of building energy consumption and performance: a review”, Vis. Eng., Vol. 6, No. 1, (2018), 5. (https://doi.org/10.1186/s40327-018-0064-7).
- Roudsari, M., Pak, M. and Smith, A., “Ladybug: a parametric environmental plugin for grasshopper to help designers create an environmentally-conscious design”, Proceedings of the 13th international IBPSA conference held in Lyon, France Aug, (2013), 3128–3135. (http://www.ibpsa.org/proceedings/BS2013/p_2499.pdf).
- Martin, L., and March, L., Urban Space and Structures. london: Cambridge University Press, (1972). (Urban Space and Structures (Cambridge Urban and Architectural Studies, Series Number 1): March, Lionel, Martin, Leslie: 9780521099349: Books - Amazon).
- Saebi Safa, B., Heidari, F., Soleimanpour, N., ” Audit Of Energy Loss Through Exterior Walls Of Buildings And Impact Of Thermal Insulation With Simulation In Design Builder Software (Case Study: Office Building In Tehran) ”, Journal of Science and Engineering Elites, (In Farsi), Vol. 5, No. 3, (2020), 169–179. (SID.ir | Audit Of Energy Loss Through Exterior Walls Of Buildings And Impact Of Thermal Insulation With Simulation In Design Builder Software (Case Study: Office Building In Tehran)).