Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Biorefinery, Faculty of New Technologies Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Alliance for Biomass and Sustainability Research–ABISURE, National University of Colombia, Campus Robledo, M3-214, Medellín, Colombia.

3 Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, King Abudlaziz University, Rabigh, Suadia Arabia.


Furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) is recognized as a valuable product of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) derived from cellulosic materials as an abundant renewable source. It could find future bioplastic application if a feasible separation process is developed. To find a commercially available solvent, FDCA should be selectively separated from HMF and the downstream process be supported by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments in line with density functional theory (DFT). Evaluation of the sigma potential and sigma surface analysis demonstrated that benzene and ethyl acetate enjoyed better extraction and HMF selectivity, whereas FDCA exhibited ideal behavior in the presence of DMF and DMSO solvents. It was proved that the hydrophobicity could be changed by improving the hydrogen-bonding interaction between them. Moreover, the up-down selection of classes of solvents based on the experimental data found by GC-MS revealed that polar molecular solvents (ethanol-water) were more compatible with carboxylic acids and alcohol compounds, while n-hexane was a desirable solvent for phenolic compounds. It was found that levoglucosan retained a significant fraction of water compared to other solvents, which need to be considered for further economic and environmental analysis under the multifaceted framework of biomass-derived products.


Main Subjects

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