Document Type : Research Article
Department of Energy Supply for Enterprise and Thermal Engineering, Tambov State Technical University, Tambov, Russia.
Solar Organic Rankine Cycle (SORC) is a successful approach to sustainable development and exploiting clean energy sources. The research aims to improve and evaluate the energy efficiency of the SORC for combined heat and power generation for a residential home under the climatic conditions of Baghdad, Iraq. Thermoeconomic analysis was carried out for the proposed energy supply system. Refrigerant HFC-245fa was used as a working fluid in a solar organic Rankine cycle, and oil poly alkyl benzene (TLV-330) was suggested as a heat transfer fluid in the solar collector field. Parametric studies for some key parameters were conducted to examine the impact of various operating conditions on energy efficiency. The results showed a significant improvement in energy efficiency. The maximum efficiency of SORC CHPG reached 79.14% when solar heat source temperatures were in the range of 100 to 150°C and the solar radiation was at a maximum value of 870 W/m2 at noon on the 15th day of July in Baghdad. The maximum energy produced by SORC CHPG was 472.5 kW when the optimal average value of global solar radiation was 7.5 kWh/m2/day in June. The economic investigations revealed that the payback period of the new energy supply system was 10 years with the positive net present cost when the solar power plant was working 18 h/day.
- Razmi, A., Soltani, M., and Torabi, M. "Investigation of an efficient and environmentally-friendly CCHP system based on CAES, ORC and compression-absorption refrigeration cycle: Energy and exergy analysis", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 195, (2019), 1199-211. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2019.05.065).
- Saeed, IM., Ramli, AT., and Saleh, MA. "Assessment of sustainability in energy of Iraq, and achievable opportunities in the long run", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 58, (2016), 1207-15. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.302).
- Martins, F., Felgueiras, C., Smitkova, M., and Caetano, N. "Analysis of fossil fuel energy consumption and environmental impacts in european countries", Energies, Vol. 12, (2019) 1–11. (https://doi.org/10.3390/en12060964).
- Solarin, SA. "An environmental impact assessment of fossil fuel subsidies in emerging and developing economies", Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 85, (2020), 106443. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2020.106443).
- Solarin, S.A., "Towards sustainable development in developing countries: Aggregate and disaggregate analysis of energy intensity and the role of fossil fuel subsidies", Sustainable Production and Consumption, Vol. 24, (2020), 254-65. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spc.2020.07.011).
- Bigerna, S., Bollino, C.A., and Polinori, P. "Convergence in renewable energy sources diffusion worldwide", Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 292, (2021), 112784. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112784).
- Al-Hamdani, N.I., "Solar Energy Applications in Iraq", International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Science, Vol. 1, (2017), 30-9. (http://ijses.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/174-IJSES-V1N9.pdf).
- Chaichan, M.T., and Kazem H.A. "Generating electricity using photovoltaic solar plants in Iraq", Springer Cham, Switzerland, (2018), 1-207. (https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-75031-6).
- Al-Kayiem, H.H., and Mohammad, S.T. "Potential of renewable energy resources with an emphasis on solar power in Iraq: An outlook". Resources, Vol. 8, (2019), 1-20. (https://doi.org/10.3390/resources8010042).
- Kazem, H.A., and Chaichan, M.T. "Status and future prospects of renewable energy in Iraq", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, (2012), 6007-12. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.058).
- Malwe, P.D., Shaikh, J., Gawali, B.S., Panchal, H., Dalkilic A.S., Rahman, S., et al. "Dynamic simulation and exergy analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle integrated with vapor compression refrigeration system", Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Vol. 53, (2022), 102684. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2022.102684).
- Oyekale, J., and Emagbetere, E.A., "Review of conventional and exergetic life cycle assessments of organic Rankine cycle plants exploiting various low-temperature energy resources", Heliyon, Vol. 8, (2022), 102684. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09833).
- Malwe, P., Gawali, B., Shaikh, J., Deshpande, M., Dhalait, R., Kulkarni S., et al. "Exergy assessment of an Organic Rankine Cycle for waste heat recovery from a refrigeration system: a review", Chemical Engineering Communications, Vol. 195, (2021), 1-29. (https://doi.org/10.1080/00986445.2021.1980396).
- Gupta, P.R., Tiwari, A.K., Said, Z. "Solar organic Rankine cycle and its poly-generation applications – A review", Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Vol. 49, (2022), 101732. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2021.101732).
- Herath, HMDP., Wijewardane M.A., Ranasinghe, RACP., and Jayasekera, JGAS. "Working fluid selection of Organic Rankine Cycles", Energy Reports, Vol. 6, (2020), 680-6. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2020.11.150).
- Tchanche, B.F., Papadakis, G., Lambrinos, G., and Frangoudakis A. "Fluid selection for a low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 29, (2009), 2468-76. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.12.025).
- Rayegan, R., and Tao Y.X. "A procedure to select working fluids for Solar Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)", Renewable Energy, Vol. 36, (2011), 659-70. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2010.07.010).
- Yang, J., Li, J., Yang, Z., and Duan, Y. "Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a solar organic Rankine cycle operating with stable output", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 187, (2019), 459-71. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2019.03.021).
- Freeman, J., Guarracino, I., Kalogirou, S.A., and Markides, C.N.A., "small-scale solar organic Rankine cycle combined heat and power system with integrated thermal energy storage". Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 127, (2017), 1543-54. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.07.163).
- Bouvier. J., Ghislain, M., Patrick, S., Thiebaut, K., and Dominique, R., "Experimental study of a micro combined heat and power system with a solar parabolic trough collector coupled to a steam Rankine cycle expander" Solar Energy, Vol. 134, (2016), 180-192. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2016.04.028).
- Garcia-Saez, I., Méndez, J., Ortiz, C., Loncar, D., Becerra, J.A., and Chacartegui, R., "Energy and economic assessment of solar Organic Rankine Cycle for combined heat and power generation in residential applications", Renewable Energy, Vol. 140, (2019), 461-76. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.03.033).
- Habka, M., and Ajib, S. "Performance estimation of mixtures in solar Organic Rankine Cycle with two mini cogeneration options for improvement purpose", Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Vol. 16, (2016), 174-89. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2016.06.002).
- Yüksel, Y.E., "Thermodynamic assessment of modified Organic Rankine Cycle integrated with parabolic trough collector for hydrogen production", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 16, (2018), 5832-41. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.09.164).
- Singh, H., Mishra. R.S., "Performance analysis of solar parabolic trough collectors driven combined supercritical CO2 and organic Rankine cycle", Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, Vol. 21, (2018), 451-64. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2018.03.015).
- Yunus A. Cengel., "Heat transfer, a practical approach", 2nd ed, McGraw-Hill, New York, (2004), 1-896. (https://doi.org/10.5408/0022-1368-4.2-2.83).
- Rajput, R.K., "Engineering Thermodynamics", 3rd ed. Boston: LAXMI PUBLICATIONS (P) LTD 113, Golden House, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002; (2007). (https://www.technicalbookspdf.com/engineering-thermodynamics-third-edition/).
- F-Chart Software, Engineering equation solver (EES). (https://fchartsoftware.com/ees/). (Accessed: 20 July 2022).
- Akram Al-Khazzar A.K., "A Comparative Study of the Available Measured Global Solar Radiation in Iraq", Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment, Vol. 4, (2018), 47-55, (https://doi.org/10.30501/jree.2017.86011).
- Al-Obaidi, M.Q., Hamid, T.G., Derbel, N., "Design of Solar Powered Water Pumping System for Domestic Use in Erbil", Proceedings of the 17th International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals and Devices, (2020), 272-8. (https://doi.org/10.1109/SSD49366.2020.9364196).
- Hassan, Q., Abbas, M.K., Abdulateef, A.M., Abulateef, J., and Mohamad, A. "Assessment the potential solar energy with the models for optimum tilt angles of maximum solar irradiance for Iraq", Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Vol. 4, (2021), 100140. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cscee.2021.100140).
- Mohammed Ali, S., "Energy efficiency assessment of solar organic rankine cycle for production of heat and electrical energy in the climatic conditions of Iraq", M.Sc thesis, Tambov State Technical University, (2020).
- Manufacturer of heat transfer fluids Рolyester, Heat carrier TLV-330, (https://termolan.ru/tlv-330m/). (Accessed: 24 July 2022).
- Aghaziarati, Z., and Aghdam, A.H., "Thermoeconomic analysis of a novel combined cooling, heating and power system based on solar organic Rankine cycle and cascade refrigeration cycle", Renewable Energy, Vol. 164, (2021), 1267-83. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2020.10.106).
- Bellos, E., and Tzivanidis, C., "Parametric analysis and optimization of a solar driven trigeneration system based on ORC and absorption heat pump", Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 161, (2017), 493-509. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.05.159).
- Baral, S., and Kim, K.C., "Thermodynamic modeling of the solar organic rankine cycle with selected organic working fluids for cogeneration", Distributed Generation and Alternative Energy Journal, Vol. 29, (2014), 7-34. (https://doi.org/10.1080/21563306.2014.10879015).
- Hossin, K., and Mahkamov, K., "Performance Evaluation for a 10 kW Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Power System to Operate in the UK Climate Conditions", The Third European Conference on Sustainability, Energy & the Environment ECSEE2015, (2015), 16. (https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.4135.4721).
- Wang, Z., Zhou, N., and Jing, G., "Performance analysis of ORC power generation system with low-temperature waste heat of aluminum reduction cell", Physics Procedia, Vol. 24, (2012), 546-53. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2012.02.080).
- Rajput, E.R.K., "Heat and Mass Transfer", Fifth Edit, S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi, (2012), 903. (http://referenceglobe.com/kpsslp/support/upload_videos/Heat%20and%20Mass%20Transfer%20%20rajput_1586515462.pdf).
- Gomaa, M.R., Mustafa, R.J., Al-Dhaifallah, M., and Rezk H.A., "low-grade heat Organic Rankine Cycle driven by hybrid solar collectors and a waste heat recovery system", Energy Reports, Vol. 6, (2020), 3425-45. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2020.12.011).
- Global petrol prices, Iraq electricity prices, (https://www.globalpetrolprices.com/Iraq/electricity_prices/). (Accessed: 26 July 2022).
- Muslim, H.N., Alkhazraji, A., and Salih, M.A., "Feasibility study of using 2kWp residential PV system comparing with 2.5kVA gasoline generator (Case study: Baghdad city)", International Journal of Energy and Environment, Vol. 9, (2018), 57-62. (https://www.ijee.ieefoundation.org/vol9/issue1/IJEE_05_v9n1.pdf).
- Suresh Baral, Dokyun Kim, Eunkoo Yun and KCK, "Energy, Exergy and Performance Analysis of Small-Scale Organic Rankine Cycle Systems for Electrical Power Generation Applicable in Rural Areas of Developing Countries", Energies, Vol. 8, (2015), 684-713. (https://doi.org/10.3390/en8020684).