Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran


This study shows the design of a new hybrid power generation system, photovoltaic panel (PV)–coupled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT)–electrolyser. Three objectives (cost, pollutant emissions, and reliability), which are usually in conflict, are considered simultaneously. The design of a hybrid system, considering the three mentioned objectives, poses a very complex problem of optimization. A multi-objective optimization method (PESA) is considered to obtain the best combinations for the hybrid system. In this work, the effect of panel s angle change and SOFC-GT fuel type are considered too. In order to study the effect of fuel price, this study is done about two fuel prices: Iran fuel price and international fuel price.


1.     Baniasad Askari, I. and Ameri, M., "Optimal sizing of photovoltaic–battery power systems in a remote region Kerman, Iran", Part A Journal of Power Energy, Vol. 223, No. 5, (2009), 563-570.
2.     Nafeh, A.A, "Proposed Technique for Optimally Sizing a PV/Diesel Hybrid System", International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality, Spain, (2010).
3.     Dufo-Lopez, R. and Bernal-Agust, J.L., "Design and Control Strategies of PV-Diesel Systems Using Genetic Algorithms", Solar Energy, Vol. 79, No. 1, (2005), 33-46.
4.     Tudorache, T. and Morega, A., "Optimum Design of Wind/PV/Diesel/Batteries Hybrid Systems", 2ND International Conference on Modern Power Systems in Romania, (2008), 261-264.
5.     Rehman, S. and Al-Hadhrami, L.M., "Study of a solar PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system for a remotely located population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia", Energy, Vol. 35, No. 12, (2010), 4986-4995.
6.     Khatiba, T., Mohameda, A., Sopianb, K. and Mahmoud, M., "Optimal  sizing  of  building  integrated  hybrid  PV/diesel  generator  system  for zero  load rejection  for  Malaysia" Energy  and  Buildings, Vol. 43, No. 12, (2011), 3430-3435.
7.     Yamegueu, D., Azoumah, Y., Py, X. and Zongo, N., "Experimental study of electricity generation by Solar PV/diesel hybrid systems without battery storage for off-grid areas", Renewable Energy, Vol. 36, (2011), 1780-1787.
8.     Baniasad Askari, I. and Ameri, M., "The Effect of Fuel Price on the Economic Analysis of Hybrid (Photovoltaic/Diesel/Battery) System in Iran", Journal of Energy Sources, part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, Vol. 6, (2011), 357-377.
9.     Nabil, A.A., Miyatake, M. and Al-Othman, A.K., "Power fluctuations suppression of stand-alone hybrid generation combining solar photovoltaic/wind turbine and fuel cell systems", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol.49, (2008), 2711–2719.
10.   Sergio, B., Silva, S.B., de-Oliveira, M.A. G. and Severino, M.M., "Economic evaluation and optimization of a photovoltaic–fuel cell–batteries hybrid system for use in the Brazilian Amazon", Energy Policy, Vol. 38, (2010), 6713-6723.
11.   Eroglu, M., Dursun, E., Sevencan, S., Song, J., Yazici, S. and Kilic, O., "A mobile renewable house using PV/wind/fuel cell hybrid power system" International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 36, (2011), 7985-7992.
12.   Lee, B., Park, P., Kim, C., Yang, S. and Ahn, S., "Power managements of a hybrid electric propulsion system for UAVs", Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 26, No. 8, (2012), 2291-2299.
13.   Sadeghi, S. and Ameri, M., "Comparison of Different Power Generators in PV-Battery-Power Generator Hybrid System", Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 1, (2014), 387-398
14.   Cheddie, F. D., "Thermo-economic optimization of an indirectly coupled solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power plant", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 36, (2011), 1702-1709.
15.   Santin, M., Traverso, A., Magistri, L. and Massardo, A., "Thermoeconomic analysis of SOFC-GT hybrid systems fed by liquid fuels", Energy, Vol. 35, (2010), 1077–1083.
16.   Bernal-Agust, J.L. and Dufo-Lopez, R., "Multi-objective design and control of hybrid systems minimizing costs and unmet load", Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 79, (2009), 170–180.
17.   Dufo-Lopez, R. and Bernal-Agust, J.L., "Multi-objective design of PV–wind– diesel– hydrogen– battery systems", Renewable Energy, Vol. 33, (2008), 2559– 2572.
18.   Sadeghi, S. and Ameri, M., "Multi-objective Optimization of PV-Battery Power Systems", 20th Annual International Conference on Mechanical Engineering of Iran, (2012).
20.   Duffie, J.A. and Beckman, W.A., "Solar engineering of thermal process", (1990) 2nd Ed., Wiley, NewYork.
21.   Yu, Z., Han, J. and Cao, X., "Investigation on performance of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell and absorption chiller tri-generation system", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 36, No. 19, (2011), 12561-12573.
22.   Ma, S., Wang, J., Yan, Z., Dai, Y. and Lu, B., "Thermodynamic analysis of a new combined cooling, heat and power system driven by solid oxide fuel cell based on ammonia–water mixture", Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 196, No. 20, (2011), 8463– 8471.
23.   Stamatis, A., Vinni, C., Bakalis, D., Tzorbatzoglou, F. and Tsiakaras, P., "Exergy Analysis of an Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid System Fed with Ethanol", Energies, Vol. 5, (2012), 4268-4287.
24.   Skarstein, O. and Uhlen, K., "Design considerations with respect to long-term diesel saving in wind/diesel plants", Wind Engineering, Vol. 13, (1989), 72-87.
30.   Mekhilef, S., Saidurb, R. and Safari, A., "Comparative study of different fuel cell technologies", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, No. 1, (2012), 981–989.
31.   Corne, W., Knowles, D. and Oates, J., "The Pareto envelope-based selection algorithm for multi objective optimization", Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1917, (2000), 839-848.
32.   Jamil Ahmad, M. and Tiwari, G.N., "Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collector to Receive Maximum Radiation", The Open Renewable Energy Journal, Vol. 2, (2009), 19-24.