Document Type : Research Article


1 Departman of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Tehran-North Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Departman of Chemical Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University , Tehran, Iran

3 Departman of chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Tehran-North Branch, Tehran, Iran


Energy obtained from renewable sources has increased its participation in the energy matrix worldwide, and it is expected to maintain this tendency. Both in large and small scales, there have been numerous developments and research with the aim of generating fuels and energy using different raw materials such as alternative crops, algae and waste cooking oil. Capparis spinosa seed (containing 32% triglycerides) is used as an excellent source for biodiesel production. In this work, biodiesel (Fatty acid methyl ester) is produced by trans-esterification of Capparis spinosa oil, in the presence of methanol and sodium hydroxide as an alkaline catalyst. According to data collection, pilot of biodiesel production is simulated by using HYSYS v3.2 software. The yield of biodiesel in the presence of sodium hydroxide was considered 94%. The results of FTIR and GC-MS spectra showed trans-esterification reaction has been complete. According to the results, the produced biodiesel is in the range of ASTM Standard.


1.     Demirbas‚ A., "Biodiesel: a realistic fuel alternative for diesel engines",  Springer (2008).
2.     Lin, L., Cunshan, Z.,  Vittayapadung, S.,  Xiangqian, S.  and  Mingdong, D., "Opportunities and challenges for biodiesel fuel",  Applied Energy‚ Vol.  88, No. 4, (2011), 1020 -1031.
3.     Ghorbani, A.,  Bazooyar, B.,  Shariati, A.,  Jokar, M.,  Ajami, H.  and  Naderi‚ A.,  "A comparative study of combustion performance and emission of biodiesel blends and diesel in an experimental boiler",  Applied Energy‚ Vol.  88,  No. 12, (2011),  4725-4732.
4.     Bankovic-Ilic, I.B.,  Stamenkovic, O.S.,  Veljkovic‚V.B.,  "Biodiesel production from non-edible plant oils",  Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews‚ Vol. 16, No. 6, (2012), 3621-3647.
5.     Lange. J.P., "Lignocellulose Conversion: an Introduction to Chemistry, Process and Economics", Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, (2007), 39-48.
6.     Corma, A.,  Iborra, S.  and Velty‚ A.,  "Chemical Routes for the Transformation of Biomass into Chemicals", Chemical Reviews, Vol. 107, (2007),  2411-2502.
7.     Sharma, Y.C.  and  Singh‚ B.,  "Development of biodiesel: Current scenario",  Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13, (2009), 1646-1651.
8.     Lee, S.B.,  Han, K.H.,  Lee, J.D.  and  Hong‚ I.K.,  "Optimum process and energy density analysis of canola oil biodiesel synthesis",  Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry‚  Vol.  16,  (2010),  1006-1010.
9.     Murzin, D.Yu.  and  Simakova‚ I.L.,  "Catalysis in Biomass Processing",  Catalysis in Industry, Vol.  3, (2011),   218-249.
10.   Saraf, S.  and  Thomas‚ B., "Influence of feedstock and process chemistry on biodiesel quality", Process safety and environmental protection , Vol.  85, No. 5, (2007),  360-364.
11.   Santacesaria, E., Vicente, G.M., Serio, M.D. and Tesser‚ R.,  "Main technologies in biodiesel production: State of the art and future challenges", Catalysis Today‚ Vol.  195, No. 1, (2012),  2-13.
12.   Jurac, Z. and Zlatar‚ V., "Optimization of raw material mixtures in the production of biodiesel from vegetable and used frying oils regarding quality requirements in terms of cold flow properties",  Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 106, (2013), 108-113.
13.   Santori, G., Nicola, G.D., Moglie, M. and Polonara, F., "A review analyzing the industrial biodiesel production practice starting from vegetable oil refining",  Applied Energy‚ Vol.  92, (2012), 109-132.
14.   Marchetti‚ J.M.,  "A summary of the available technologies for biodiesel production based on a comparison of different feedstock’s properties",  Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Vol.  90, No. 3, (2012), 157-163.
15.   Cao, P.,  Dube´, M.A.  and  Tremblay‚ A.Y.,  "High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor", Biomass and Bioenergy‚ Vol. 32,  (2008), 1028-1036.
16.   Atadashi,  I.M.,   Aroua,  M.K.,  Abdul Aziz,  A.R.  and  Sulaiman‚  N.M.N. , "The effects of catalysts in biodiesel production: A review",  Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry‚ Vol.  19,  (2013), 14-26.
17.   Dorado,  M.P.,  Ballesteros,  E.,  Anal,  J.M.,  Gomez, J.  and  Lopez‚ F.J., "Exhaust emissions from a diesel engine fueled with transesterified waste olive oil",  Fuel‚ Vol.  82, No. 11, (2003),  1311-1315.
18.   Tompkins,  B.T., Song, H., Bittle, J.A. and Jacobs‚ T.J.,  "Efficiency considerations for the use of blended biofuel in diesel engines",  Applied Energy‚ Vol. 98,  (2012),  209-218.
19.   Avami‚ A.,  "A model for biodiesel supply chain: A case study in Iran", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,  Vol.  16,  (2012),  4196-4203.
20.   Nizar, T., Sergi munne, B., Nizar , N., Saadaoul, E., Khaldi, A. and Triki, S., "Faty acids tocopherols and carotenoids from seeds of tunisian caper ‘Caparis spinosa’",  Journal of Food Lipids, Vol. 16, (2009), 452-464.
21.   Romeo, V.,  Ziino, M., Giuffrida, D.,  Condurso,C. and  Verzera, A., "Flavour profile of capers (Capparis spinosa L.) from the Eolian Archipelago by HS-SPME/GC–MS", Food Chemistry, Vol. 101, (2007), 1272–1278.
22.   Sozzi, G.O. "Capper Bush: Botany and horticulture", Horticultural Reviews.,john wiley & sons, Vol. 27, (2001), 125-188..
23.   Ramadhas,  A.S.,  Jayaraj,  S.  and  Muraleedharan‚ C.,  "Use of vegetable oils as I.C. engine fuels: a review", Renewable Energy‚  Vol. 29, (2004),  727-742.
24.   Naik, S.N., Goud, V.V., Rout, P.K. and Dalai‚ A.K.,  "Production of first and second generation biofuels: A comprehensive review" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews‚ Vol. 14, No. 2, (2010), 578-597.
25.   Helwani, Z.,  Othman, M.R.,  Aziz, N.,  Fernando, W.J.N.  and  Kim‚ J., "Technologies for production of biodiesel focusing on green catalytic techniques: a review", Fuel  Processing Technology‚ Vol.  90, No. 12, (2009), 1502-1514.
26.   Juan, J.C.,  Kartika, D.A.,  Wu, T.Y.  and   Hin‚ T.Y.Y.,  "Biodiesel production from jatropha oil by catalytic and non-catalytic approaches: an overview",  Bioresource Technology, Vol.  102, (2011),  452-460.
27.   Semwal, S., Arora, A.K., Badoni, R.P. and Tuli‚ D.K.,"Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts",  Bioresource Technology‚ Vol.  102, No. 3, (2011), 2151-2161.
28.   Marchetti‚  J.M.,  "The effect of economic variables over a biodiesel production plant", Energy Conversion and Management‚ Vol. 52, No. 10, (2011),  3227-3233.
29.   Zabeti, M., Ashri Wan Daud, W.M. and Aroua‚ M.K., "Activity of solid catalysts for biodiesel production: A review",  Fuel Processing Technology‚ Vol. 90, No. 6, (2009), 770-777