Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Agriculture Machinery, Abureyhan Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Chemistry Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.


Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging energy efficient, low-pressure and low-cost intensive desalination process that has recently attracted experts’ attention. The process is to explain that ions (cations and anions) can be separated by a pure electrostatic force imposed by a small bias potential. Even at a rather low voltage of 1.2 V, desalinated water can be produced. The process can be well operational by a professional cell design. Although various processes have been manufactured before, in this study, membrane was removed and a new unit was designed and manufactured (Using CFD Simulation). In this case, the combination of activated carbon powder (with an effective surface area of 2600 m2 per gram), carbon black, and polyvinyl alcohol with a ratio of 35/35/30 coated on carbon paper as electrode materials was considered for tests. The weight was 1.41 grams for each material, and the thickness was 0.44 mm. CDI system was tested, and the results of charge-discharge cycles, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy were evaluated. It can be implied that there is no need for a strong pump and, also, pressure drop can be reduced due to such a noticeable space between two electrodes. Preliminary experimental results showed high specific capacitance (2.1 Farad) and ultra-high salt adsorption capacity, compared with similar cases.


Main Subjects

1.     El-Dessouky, H.T. and Ettouney, H.M., "Multi-stage flash desalination", Elsevier, (2002). (doi:10.1016/B978-044450810-2/50008-7).
2.     FAO, "Irrigation in the Middle East region in figures", (2009), 423. (doi:978-92-5-106316-3).
3.     Gharibi, H., "Recent advances in reducing physical-chemical environmental impacts of seawater desalination projects", Proceedings of Specialized Conference on Desalination, Brackish Water and Wastewater Treatment, (2012), 1-14.
4.     Mezher, T., Fath, H., Abbas, Z. and Khaled, A., "Techno-economic assessment and environmental impacts of desalination technologies", Desalination, Vol. 266, No. 1-3, (2011), 263-273. (doi:10.1016/j.desal. 2010.08.035).
5.     Reenlee, L.F., Lawler, D.F., Freeman, B.D., Marrot, B. and Moulin, P., "Reverse osmosis desalination: Water sources, technology, and today’s challenges", Water Research, Vol. 43, No. 9, (2009), 2317-2348. (doi:10.1016/j.watres.2009.03.010).
6.     Belessiotis, V., Kalogirou, S. and Delyannis, E., Thermal solar desalination: Methods and systems, (2016). (doi:10.1016/C2015-0-05735-5).
7.     Suss, M.E., Porada, S., Sun, X., Biesheuvel, P.M., Yoon, J. and Presser, V., "Water desalination via capacitive deionization: What is it and what can we expect from it?", Energy and Environmental Science, Vol. 8, No. 8, (2015), 2296-2319. (doi:10.1039/C5EE00519A).
8.     Anderson, M.A., Cudero, A.L. and Palma, J., "Capacitive deionization as an electrochemical means of saving energy and delivering clean water, Comparison to present desalination practices: Will it compete?" Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 55, No. 12, (2010), 3845-3856. (doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2010.02.012).
9.     Welgemoed, T.J. and Schutte, C.F., "Capacitive deionization technologyTM: An alternative desalination solution", Desalination, Vol. 183, No. 1-3, (2005), 327-340. (doi:10.1016/j.desal.2005.02.054).
10.   Porada, S., Zhao, R., Van Der Wal, A., Presser, V. and Biesheuvel, P.M., "Review on the science and technology of water desalination by capacitive deionization", Progress in Materials Science, Vol. 58, No. 8, (2013), 1388-1442. (doi:10.1016/j.pmatsci.2013.03.005).
11.   Zhao, Y., Wang, Y., Wang, R., Wu, Y., Xu, S. and Wang, J., "Performance comparison and energy consumption analysis of capacitive deionization and membrane capacitive deionization processes", Desalination, Vol. 324, (2013), 127-133. (doi:10.1016/ j.desal.2013.06.009).
12.   Du, H., Lin, X., Xu, Z. and Chu, D., "Electric double-layer transistors: A review of recent progress", Journal of Material Science, Vol 50, No. 17, Springer, US, (2015), 5641-5673. (doi:10.1007/s10853-015-9121-y).
13.   Qu, Y., Campbell, P.G., Hemmatifar, A., Knipe, J.M., Loeb, C.K., Reidy, J.J., Hubert, M.A., Stadermann, M. and Santiago, J.G., "Charging and transport dynamics of a flow-through electrode capacitive deionization system", Journal of Physical Chemistry B., Vol. 122, No. 1, (2018), 240-249. (doi:10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b09168).
14.   AlMarzooqi, F.A., Al Ghaferi, A.A., Saadat, I. and Hilal, N., "Application of capacitive deionisation in water desalination: A review", Desalination, Vol. 342, (2014), 3-15. (doi:10.1016/j.desal. 2014.02.031).
15.   Oren, Y., "Capacitive deionization (CDI) for desalination and water treatment-past, present and future (A review)", Desalination, Vol. 228, No. 1-3, (2008), 10-29. (doi:10.1016/j.desal.2007.08.005).
16.   Jeon, Y.S., Cheong, S.I. and Rhim, J.W., "Design shape of CDI cell applied with APSf and SPEEK and performance in MCDI", Macromolecular Research, Vol. 25, No. 7, (2017), 712-721. (doi:10.1007/s13233-017-5064-2).
17.   Liang, P., Yuan, L., Yang, X., Zhou, S. and Huang, X., "Coupling ion-exchangers with inexpensive activated carbon fiber electrodes to enhance the performance of capacitive deionization cells for domestic wastewater desalination", Water Research, Vol. 47, No. 7, (2013), 2523-2530. (doi:10.1016/j.watres.2013.02.037).