Assessing Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of Wind Energy in Iran with Focus on Development of Wind Power Plants

Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Department of Geography & Urban Planning, Payam Noor University, Iran.

2 Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Ardakan University, P. O. Box: 184, Ardakan, Iran.

3 Shirvan Higher Education Complex, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), Mashhad, Iran.

4 Department of Desert Area Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

As a key economic element, energy plays an important role in the development of societies. Economic growth and its urgent need for energy highlight the need for optimal energy use. Wind energy is an energy source that has become an increasingly common source of electricity. In this study, socio-economic impacts of the cost of electricity generated by wind power plants were assessed with Iran as the focus of this study. The environmental impacts of wind energy were also considered by reviewing and analyzing research papers. Studies showed that although the use of wind energy in Iran began in Manjil in northern Iran, no significant progress has been made in this field despite all the efforts over the past years. The results indicated that the initial cost of launching wind turbines was the most important factor in the failure of this technology. The costs of purchasing turbines, construction of roads, provision of electrical infrastructure, project management, installation of turbines, insurance premiums, grid connections, and power lines were shown to affect costs of energy production. Furthermore, operation and maintenance costs, the choice of installation location, increasing production capacity, expansion of the energy market, and policies in the country can play an essential role in determining the cost of wind energy production. Given that power generation using wind turbines are economical, it is recommended that turbines be installed in suitable windy locations. In addition, considering that one of the crises facing the world and especially Iran is environmental pollution, utilizing energies such as wind energy for generating electricity is advised due to their lower pollutant emissions and lower economic and social costs.

Keywords

Main Subjects


1.     Shahsavari, A. and Akbari, M., "Potential of solar energy in developing countries for reducing energy-related emissions", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 90, (2018), 275-291. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.065).

3.     Davy, R., Gnatiuk, N., Pettersson, L. and Bobylev, L., "Climate change impacts on wind energy potential in the European domain with a focus on the Black Sea", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 81, Part 2 (2018), 1652-1659. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.253).

4.     Benitez, L., "The economics of wind power with energy storage", Energy Economics, Vol. 30, No. 4,  (2008), 1973-1989. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2007.01.017)

5.     Leonard, M.D., Michael ides, E.E. and Michael ides, D.N., "Substitution of coal power plants with renewable energy sources–Shift of the power demand and energy storage", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 164, (2018), 27-35. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2018.02.083)

6.     Liu, G., Li, M., Zhou, B., Chen, Y. and Liao, S., "General indicator for techno-economic assessment of renewable energy resources", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 156, (2018), 416-426. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.11.054).

8.     Pulliam, N., Energy and the environment, Published by the English Press, (2011), 1-111.

9.     Business Monitor International (BMI) research, Iran power report, (2018).

10.   Cambron, P., Masson, C., Tahan, A. and Pelletier, F., "Control chart monitoring of wind turbine generators using the statistical inertia of a wind farm average", Renewable Energy, Vol. 116, Part B, (2018), 88-98. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.09.029).

11.   Bergey Wind Power Company, Vol. 10, (Accessed January 2013).

13.   Duran, S.A., "Progress and recent trends in wind energy", Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 30, Issue 5, (2004), 501-543. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2004.04.001).

15.   Richardson, D.B., "Electric vehicles and the electric grid: A review of modeling approaches, impacts, and renewable energy integration", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 19, (2013), 247-254. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.042).

16.   Hamouda, Y.A., "Wind energy in Egypt: Economic feasibility for Cairo", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, Issue 5, (2012), 3312-3319. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.02.058).

17.   Najafi, G. and Ghobadian, B., "LLK1694-Wind energy resources and development in Iran", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15, Issue 5, (2011), 2719-2728. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.03.002).

18.   Sharifi, A., "Estimated energy available from the wind flow of the Ghazvin Kahk Plain in order to construct a wind power plant", Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, (2006).

19.   Wang, W.C., Wang, J.J. and Chong, W.T., "The effects of unsteady wind on the performances of a newly developed cross-axis wind turbine: A wind tunnel study", Renewable Energy, Vol. 131, (2019), 644-659. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.07.061).

22.   Duan, H., "Emissions and temperature benefits: The role of wind power in China", Environmental Research, Vol. 152, (2017), 342-350. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.07.016).

23.   Sedaghat, A., Hassanzadeh, A., Jamali, J., Mostafaeipour, A. and, Chen, W.H., "Determination of rated wind speed for maximum annual energy production of variable speed wind turbines", Applied Energy, Vol. 205, (2017), 781-789. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.08.079).

24.   Keyhani, M., Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, M. and Khanali, R., "An assessment of wind energy potential as a power generation source in the capital of Iran, Tehran", Energy, Vol. 35, Issue 1, 188-201. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2009.09.009.

25.   Fathabadi, H., "Novel high-efficient large-scale stand-alone solar/wind hybrid power source equipped with battery bank used as storage device", Journal of Energy Storage, Vol. 17, (2018), 485-495. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2018.04.008).

26    Naeeni, N. and Yaghoubi, M., "Analysis of wind flow around a parabolic collector (1) fluid flow", Renewable Energy, Vol. 32, Issue 11, (2007), 1898-1916. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2006.10.004).

27.   Jafari, M. and Tavili, A., Reclamation of aridlands, University of Tehran Press, (2020).

28.   Hooshmand, M. and Hosseini, S.H., "Economic evaluation of electricity generation using wind energy by the private sectoring Iran", Financial Monetary Economy, Vol. 21, No 8, (2013), 87-106. (In Farsi) (https://doi.org/10.22067/pm.v21i8.45858).

29.   Mostafaeipour, H., "Harnessing wind energy at Manjil area located in north of Iran", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 12, (2008), 1758-1766. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.05.009).

30.   Jensen, C.U., Panduro, T.E., Lundhede, T.H., Nielsen, A.S.E., Dalsgaard, M. and Thorsen, B.J., "The impact of on-shore and off-shore wind turbine farms on property prices", Energy Policy, Vol. 116, (2018), 50-59. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.01.046).

31.   Nasiri, J., "Wind energy potential in Iran", New Energy Articles, Ministry of Energy, (1997).

32.   Nedaei, M., "Wind resource assessment in Hormozgan province in Iran", International Journal of Sustainable Energy, Vol. 33, Issue 3,  (2014), 650-694. (https://doi.org/10.1080/14786451.2013.784319).

33.   National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Vol. 10, (Accessed January 2013).

34.   Henckes, P., Knaut, A., Obermüller, F. and Frank, C., "The benefit of long-term high resolution wind data for electricity system analysis", Energy, Vol. 143, (2018), 934-942. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.energy.2017.10.049).

37.   Abanda, F.H., "Renewable energy sources in Cameroon: Potentials, benefits and enabling environment", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, Issue 7, (2012), 4557-4562. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.rser.2012.04.011).

38.   Murcia, J.P., Réthoré, P.E., Dimitrov, N., Natarajan, A., Sørensen, J.D., Graf, P. and Kim, T., "Uncertainty propagation through an aeroelastic wind turbine model using polynomial surrogates", Renewable Energy, Vol. 119, (2018), 910-922. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.renene.2017.07.070).

40.   Chaianong, C.H., "Outlook and challenges for promoting solar photovoltaic rooftops in Thailand", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 48,  (2015), 356-372. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.rser.2015.04.042).

41.   Ishaq, H., Dincer, I. and Naterer, G.F., "Performance investigation of an integrated wind energy system for co-generation of power and hydrogen", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 43, Issue 19, (2018), 9153-9164. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.03.139).

43.   Scherhaufer, P., Höltinger, S., Salak, B., Schauppenlehner, T. and Schmidt, J., "Patterns of acceptance and non-acceptance within energy landscapes: A case study on wind energy expansion in Austria", Energy Policy, Vol. 109, (2017), 863-870. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.05.057)

46.   Barnett, D., "Kansas from 2007 to 2017: A decade of renewable energy development", The Electricity Journal, Vol. 30, (2017), 72-79. (http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2017.06.006).

47.   Hui, B.E. and Cain, J.O., "Public receptiveness of vertical axis wind turbines", Energy Policy, Vol. 112, (2018), 258-271. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.10.028).

50.   Best, R. and Burke, P.J., "Adoption of solar and wind energy: The roles of carbon pricing and aggregate policy support", Energy Policy, Vol. 118, (2018), 404-417. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.03.050).

51.   Mohammadzadeh, P., Zare, K. and Pourfarzin, Z., "Economic assessment of electricity production of wind turbines", Quarterly Journal of Energy Economics, Vol. 12, (2016), 181-200. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.10.030).

52.   Van Dijk, M.T., Van Wingerden, J.W., Ashuri, T. and Li, Y., "Wind farm multi-objective wake redirection for optimizing power production and loads", Energy, Vol. 121, (2017), 561-569. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.01.051).

53.   Nie, J. and Jiachun, L.,  "Technical potential assessment of offshore wind energy over shallow continent shelf along China coast", Renewable Energy, Vol. 128, Part A, (2018), 391-399. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.05.081).

54.   Santos-Alamillos, F.J., Thomaidis, N.S., Usaola-García, J., Ruiz-Arias, J.A. and Pozo-Vázquez, D., "Exploring the mean-variance portfolio optimization approach for planning wind repowering actions in Spain", Renewable Energy, Vol. 106, (2017), 335-342. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.01.041).

55.   Martínez, E., Latorre-Biel, J.I., Jiménez, E., Sanz, F. and Blanco, J., "Life cycle assessment of a wind farm repowering process", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 93, (2018), 260-271. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.05.044).

57.   Prata, R., Carvalho, P.M. and Azevedo, I.L., "Distributional costs of wind energy production in Portugal under the liberalized Iberian market regime", Energy Policy, Vol. 113, (2018), 500-512. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.enpol.2017.11.030).

58.   Williams, E., Hittinger, E., Carvalho, R. and Williams, R., "Wind power costs expected to decrease due to technological progress", Energy Policy, Vol. 106, (2017), 427-435. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.enpol.2017.03.032).

60.   Akdağ, S.A. and Güler, O., "Alternative Moment Method for wind energy potential and turbine energy output estimation", Renewable Energy, Vol. 120, (2018), 69-77. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.renene.2017.12.072).

61.   Elosegui, U. and Ulazia, A., "Novel on-field method for pitch error correction in wind turbines", Energy Procedia, Vol. 142, (2017), 9-16. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.003).

62.   Lupton, R.C. and Langley, R.S., "Scaling of slow-drift motion with platform size and its importance for floating wind turbines", Renewable Energy, Vol. 101, (2017), 1013-1020. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.renene.2016.09.052).

63.   Ayodele, T.R., Ogunjuyigbe, A.S.O. and Amusan, T.O., "Techno-economic analysis of utilizing wind energy for water pumping in some selected communities of Oyo State, Nigeria", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 91, (2018), 335-343. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.026).

64.   Jorgenson, P., Denholm, T. and Mai, T., "Analyzing storage for wind integration in a transmission-constrained power system", Applied Energy, Vol. 228, (2018), 122-129. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.06.046).

65.   Kumar, R., Raahemifar, K. and Fung, A.S., "A critical review of vertical axis wind turbines for urban applications", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 89, (2018), 281-291. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.033).

66.   Long, H., Zhang, Z., Sun, M.X. and Li, Y.F., "The data-driven schedule of wind farm power generations and required reserves", Energy, Vol. 149, (2018), 485-495. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.02.058).

67.   Souza, R.R., Moreira, A.B., Barros, T.A. and Rupert, E., "A proposal for a wind system equipped with a doubly fed induction generator using the Conservative Power Theory for active filtering of harmonics currents", Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 164, (2018), 167-177. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.01.059).

68.   Sadeghi, M. and Karimi, M., "GIS-based solar and wind turbine site selection using multi-criteria analysis: Case study: Tehran, Iran", The International Archive of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XLII-4/W4, (2017), 469-476. (https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-4-W4-469-2017).

69.   Serri, E., Lembo, D., Airoldi, C. and Gelli, M., "Wind energy plants repowering potential in Italy: Technical-economic assessment", Renewable Energy, Vol. 115, (2018), 382-390. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.08.031).

71.   Sur, J.R., Belthoff, E.R., Bjerre, B.A. and Millsap, T.K., "The utility of point count surveys to predict wildlife interactions with wind energy facilities: An example focused on golden eagles", Ecological Indicators, Vol. 88, (2018), 126-133. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.01.024).

72.   Mostafaeipour, A., "Feasibility study of harnessing wind energy for turbine installation in province of Yazd in Iran", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, Issue 1, (2010), 93-111. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.05.009).

74.   Mirzahosseini, H. and Taheri, T., "Environmental, technical and financial feasibility study of solar power plants by RET Screen, according to the targeting of energy subsidies in Iran", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, Issue 5,  (2012), 2806-2811. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.01.066).

76.   Akbari, M., Neamatollahi, E. and Neamatollahi, P., "Evaluating land suitability for spatial planning in arid regions of eastern Iran using fuzzy logic and multi-criteria analysis", Ecological Indicators, Vol. 98, (2019), 587-598. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.11.035).

77.   Martino, T., Christian, B. and Banister, D., "Modelling diffusion feedbacks between technology performance, cost and consumer behavior for future energy-transport systems", Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 251, (2014), 130-136. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.11.028).

78.   Cansino, J.M., Pablo-Romero, M.P., Roma, R. and Yn˜iguez, R., "Tax incentives to promote green electricity: an overview of EU-27 countries", Energy Policy, Vol. 38, Issue 10, (2010), 6000-6008. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.05.055).

79.   Lowther, S.M. and Tyler S., "A review of impacts of wind turbines on birds in the UK- Report No. W/13/00426/REP3", Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU), (1996).

80.   Łopucki, R., Klich, D., Ścibior, A., Gołębiowska, D. and Perzanowski, K., "Living in habitats affected by wind turbines may result in an increase in corticosterone levels in ground dwelling animals", Ecological Indicators, Vol. 84, (2018), 165-171. (http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.08.052).

81.   Dusonchet, E.T., "Comparative economic analysis of support policies for solar PV in the most representative EU countries", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 42, (2015), 986-998. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.01.053).

82.   Gandomkar, M.R. and Kaviani, S.A., "Investigation of wind energy in Sistan and Baluchestan province in order to produce wind power", Research Journal of Isfahan University, Vol. 27, (2009), 1-19.

83.   Fortunato, G. and Mummolo, G., "Economic optimization of wind power plants for isolated locations", Solar Energy, Vol. 60, Issue 6,  (1997), 347-358. (https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-092X(97)00027-3).

84.   Fornarelli, R., Shahnia, F., Anda, M., Bahri, P.A. and Ho, G., "Selecting an economically suitable and sustainable solution for a renewable energy-powered water desalination system: A rural Australian case study", Desalination, Vol. 435, (2018), 128-139. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.desal.2017.11.008).

87.   Dahlke, S., "Effects of wholesale electricity markets on wind generation in the midwestern United States", Energy Policy, Vol. 122, (2018), 358-368. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.07.026).

88.   Barré, K., Le Viol, I., Bas, Y. and Julliard, R.C., "Estimating habitat loss due to wind turbine avoidance by bats: Implications for European siting guidance", Biological Conservation, Vol. 226, (2018), 205-214. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.07.011).

91.   Arnold, B., Lutz, T. and Krämer, E., "Design of a boundary-layer suction system for turbulent trailing-edge noise reduction of wind turbines", Renewable Energy, Vol. 123, (2018), 249-262. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.02.050).

92.   Anonymous Iran and World Energy Facts and Figures, (2014), 1-131.

93.   Aman, M.M., Solangi, K.H., Hossain, M.S., Badarudin, A., Jasmon, G.B., Mokhlis, H., Bakar, A.H.A. and Kazi, S.N., "A review of safety, health and environmental (SHE) issues of solar energy system", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 41, (2015), 190-204. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.08.086).

95.   Alamdari, P., Nematollahi, O. and Mirhosseini, M., "Assessment of wind energy in Iran: A review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, Issue 1,  (2012), 836-860. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.09.007)

96.   Ahmed, A.S., "Wind energy characteristics and wind park installation in Shark El-Ouinat, Egypt", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 82, Part 1,  (2018), 734-742. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.09.031).

98.   Ackermann, T., "An overview of wind energy-status 2002", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 6, Issue 1-2, (2002), 67-127. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S1364-0321(02)00008-4).

99.   Abbasi, M.R., Monazzam, M.H., Ebrahimi, S.Y., Zakerian, M.F. and Dehghan, A., "Assessment of noise effects of wind turbine on the general health of staff at wind farm of Manjil, Iran", Journal of Law Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control, Vol. 35, NO. 1, (2016), 91-98. (https://doi.org/10.1177/0263092316628714).