Multi-objective Optimization of a Solar Driven Combined Power and Refrigeration System Using Two Evolutionary Algorithms Based on Exergoeconomic Concept


1 Department of Computer Engineering, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran


This paper deals with a multi-objective optimization of a novel micro solar driven combined power and ejector refrigeration system (CPER). The system combines an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with an ejector refrigeration cycle to generate electricity and cold capacity simultaneously. Major thermodynamic parameters, namely turbine inlet temperature, turbine inlet pressure, turbine back pressure, and evaporator temperature are selected as the decision variables. Three objective functions, namely the energetic efficiency, exergetic efficiency and cost rate of products are selected for optimization. NSGA-II and MOPSO are employed and compared, to achieve the final solutions in the multi-objective optimization of the system operating. It is found that the values of the energetic and exergetic efficiencies increase within 27.7% and 26.1%, respectively and the cost rate of products decreases by about 32.7% with respect to base case.


1.     Goswami, D., "Solar thermal power: status of technologies and opportunities for research", Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 95, (1995), 57-60.

2.     Goswami, D.Y. and Xu, F., "Analysis of a new thermodynamic cycle for combined power and cooling using low and mid temperature solar collectors", Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 121, No. 2, (1999), 91-97.

3.     Xu, F., Goswami, D.Y. and Bhagwat, S.S., "A combined power/cooling cycle", Energy, Vol. 25, No. 3, (2000), 233-246.

4.     Hasan, A.A., Goswami, D.Y. and Vijayaraghavan, S., "First and second law analysis of a new power and refrigeration thermodynamic cycle using a solar heat source", Solar Energy, Vol. 73, No. 5, (2002), 385-393.

5.     Goswami, D.Y., Vijayaraghavan, S., Lu, S. and Tamm, G., "New and emerging developments in solar energy", Solar Energy, Vol. 76, No. 1, (2004), 33-43.

6.     Tamm, G., Goswami, D.Y., Lu, S. and Hasan, A.A., "Theoretical and experimental investigation of an ammonia–water power and refrigeration thermodynamic cycle", Solar Energy, Vol. 76, (2004), 217-228.

7.     Vidal, A., Best, R., Rivero, R. and  Cervantes, J., "Analysis of a combined power and refrigeration cycle by the exergy method", Energy, Vol. 31, No. 15, (2006), 3401-3414.

8.     Vijayaraghavan, S. and Goswami, D.Y., "A combined power and cooling cycle modified to improve resource utilization efficiency using a distillation stage", Energy, Vol. 31, (2006), 1177-1196.

9.     Martin, C. and Goswami, D.Y., "Effectiveness of cooling production with a combined power and cooling thermodynamic cycle", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 26, (2006), 576-582.

10.   Sadrameli, S. and Goswami, D.Y., "Optimum operating conditions for a combined power and cooling thermodynamic cycle", Applied Energy, Vol. 84, No. 3, (2007), 254-265.

11.   Zheng, D., Chen, B., Qi, Y. and Jin, H., "Thermodynamic analysis of a novel absorption power/cooling combined-cycle", Applied Energy, Vol. 83, No. 4, (2006), 311-323.

12.   Zhang, N. and Lior, N., "Development of a novel combined absorption cycle for power generation and refrigeration", Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 129, No. 3, (2007), 254-265.

13.   Zhang, N. and Lior, N., "Methodology for thermal design of novel combined refrigeration/power binary fluid systems", International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 30, No. 6, (2007), 1072-1085.

14.   Liu, M. and Zhang, N., "Proposal and analysis of a novel ammonia–water cycle for power and refrigeration cogeneration", Energy, Vol. 32, No. 6, (2007), 961-970.

15.   Wang, J., Dai, Y. and Gao, L., "Parametric analysis and optimization for a combined power and refrigeration cycle", Applied Energy, Vol. 85, No. 11, (2008), 1071-1085.

16.   Alexis, G.K., "Performance parameters for the design of a combined refrigeration and electrical power cogeneration system", International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 30, No. 6, (2007), 1097-1103.

17.   Dai, Y., Wang, J. and Gao, L., "Exergy analysis, parametric analysis and optimization for a novel combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 10, (2009), 1983-1990.

18.   Wang, J., Dai, Y. and Sun, Z., "A theoretical study on a novel combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle", International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 32, No. 6, (2009), 1186-1194.

19.   Zheng, B. and Weng, Y.W., "A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources", Solar Energy, Vol. 84, No. 5, (2010), 784-791.

20.   Habibzadeh, A., Rashidi, M.M. and Galanis, N., "Analysis of a combined power and ejector-refrigeration cycle using low temperature heat", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 65, (2013), 381-391.

21. Engineering Equation Solver (EES).

22.   Cengel, A.Y. and Boles, M.A., "Thermodynamics: An engineering approach", New York: McGraw Hill, (2008).

23.   Ouzzane, M. and Aidoun, Z., "Model development and numerical procedure for detailed ejector analysis and design", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 23, No. 18, (2003), 2337-2351.

24.   Huang, B.J., Chang, J.M., Wang, C.P. and Petrenko, V.A., "A 1-D analysis of ejector performance", International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 22, No. 5, (1999), 354-364.

25.   kalogirou, s., "solar energy engineering: processes and systems",  UK: Elsevier, (2009).

26.   Zhang, W., Ma, X., Omer, S.A. and Riffat, S.B., "Optimum selection of solar collectors for a solar-driven ejector air conditioning system by experimental and simulation study", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 63, No. 0, (2012), 106-111.

27. Apricus Collector Specifications.

28.   Sukhatme, K. and Sukhatme, S.P., "Solar energy: principles of thermal collection and storage", Tata McGraw-Hill Education, (1996).

29.   Bejan, A. and Moran, M.J., "Thermal design and optimization",  Wiley. com, (1996).

30. product specification sheet.

31.   Garousi Farshi, L., Mahmoudi, S.M.S. and Rosen, M.A., "Exergoeconomic comparison of double effect and combined ejector-double effect absorption refrigeration systems", Applied Energy, Vol. 103, (2013), 700-711.

32.   Mohammadkhani, F., Shokati, N., Mahmoudi, S.M.S., Yari, M. and Rosenc, M.A., "Exergoeconomic assessment and parametric study of a Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor combined with two Organic Rankine Cycles", Energy, Vol. 65, (2014), 533-543.

33.   Martínez-Lera, S., Ballester, J. and Martínez-Lera, J., "Analysis and sizing of thermal energy storage in combined heating, cooling and power plants for buildings", Applied Energy, Vol. 106, (2013), 127-142.

34.   El-Emam, R.S. and Dincer, I., "Exergy and exergoeconomic analyses and optimization of geothermal organic Rankine cycle", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 59, No. 1, (2013), 435-444.

35.   Pierobon, L., Nguyen, T.V., Larsen, U., Haglind, F. and Elmegaard, B., "Multi-objective optimization of organic Rankine cycles for waste heat recovery: Application in an offshore platform", Energy, Vol. 58, (2013), 538-549.

36.   Petela, R., "Exergy of undiluted thermal radiation", Solar Energy, Vol. 74, No. 6, (2003), 469-488.

37.   Wall, G., Exergetics. See also: http://exergy. se. 1998, Mölndal, Sweden.

38.   Zamfirescu, C. and Dincer, I., "How much exergy one can obtain from incident solar radiation?", Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 105, No. 4, (2009).

39.   Wang, M., Wang, J., Zhao, P. and Dai, Y., "Multi-objective optimization of a combined cooling, heating and power system driven by solar energy", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 89, (2015), 289-297.

40.   Li, X. "A non-dominated sorting particle swarm optimizer for multiobjective optimization", Genetic and Evolutionary Computation—GECCO,  Vol. 2723, (2003), 37-48.

41.   Parsopoulos, K.E. and Vrahatis, M.N., "Particle swarm optimization method in multiobjective problems", Proceedings of the 2002 ACM symposium on Applied computing, (2002), 603-607.

42.   Coello, C.A.C., Pulido, G.T. and Lechuga, M.S., "Handling multiple objectives with particle swarm optimization", Evolutionary Computation, IEEE Transactions, Vol. 8, No. 3, (2004), 256-279.