Feasibility Study of Renewable Energy Generation Opportunities for a Dairy Farm

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Faculty of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Renewable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

The current study investigated the feasibility of renewable energy harvesting to meet the energy need of a dairy farm in Shahroud, Iran. Therefore, considering the available renewable resources including solar, wind, and biomass in the site and the electrical demand of the farm, the techno-economic and environmental analyses were carried out. By using Homer software, the optimized system was selected. It was shown that although there was wind potential within the farm site, the most economical system would be a system consisting of a 100 kW biomass power plant and a 169 kW PV plant. Furthermore, by using RETScreen software, the economic and environmental analyses for the selected system were carried out. The simple and equity paybacks were 5.8 and 4.2 years for the proposed system, which confirmed the economic feasibility of the proposed system. Moreover, the gross annual GHG emission would be reduced by 91.5 %. The techno-economic and environmental analyses conducted in the current paper confirmed that the proposed system could be easily extended for other dairy farms, which resulted in a significant increase in the energy ratio of the dairy farms.

Keywords

Main Subjects


1.     Stritih, U., Tyagi, V.V., Stropnik, R., Paksoy, H., Haghighat, F. and Joybari, M.M., "Integration of passive PCM technologies for net-zero energy buildings", Sustainable Cities Society, Vol. 41, (2018), 286-295. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.04.036).

2.     Deetjen, T.A., Conger, J.P., Leibowicz, B.D. and Webber, M.E., "Review of climate action plans in 29 major US cities: Comparing current policies to research recommendations", Sustainable Cities Society, Vol. 41, (2018), 711-727. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs. 2018.06.023).

3.     Rogelj, J., den Elzen, M., Höhne, N., Fransen, T., Fekete, H., Winkler, H., Schaeffer, R., Sha, F., Riahi, K. and Meinshausen, M., "Paris agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 C", Nature, Vol. 534, No. 7609, (2016), 631-639. (https://doi.org/ 10.1038/nature18307).

4.     Saidan, M., Albaali, A.G., Alasis, E. and Kaldellis, J.K., "Experimental study on the effect of dust deposition on solar photovoltaic panels in desert environment", Renewable Energy, Vol. 92, (2016), 499-505. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.02.031).

5.     Fant, C., Schlosser, C.A. and Strzepek, K., "The impact of climate change on wind and solar resources in southern Africa", Applied Energy, Vol. 161, (2016), 556-564. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy. 2015.03.042).

6.     Hong, T., Lee, M., Koo, C., Jeong, K. and Kim, J., "Development of a method for estimating the rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) potential by analyzing the available rooftop area using Hillshade analysis", Applied Energy, Vol. 194, (2017), 320-332. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy. 2016.07.001).

7.     Rajput, D.S. and Sudhakar, K., "Effect of dust on the performance of solar PV panel", International Journal of ChemTech Research, Vol. 5, No. 2, (2013), 1083-1086.

8.     Tanesab, J., Parlevliet, D., Whale, J., Urmee, T. and Pryor, T., "The contribution of dust to performance degradation of PV modules in a temperate climate zone", Solar Energy, Vol. 120, (2015), 147-157. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2015.06.052).

9.     Gholami, A., Khazaee, I., Eslami, S., Zandi, M. and Akrami, E., "Experimental investigation of dust deposition effects on photo-voltaic output performance", Solar Energy, Vol. 159, (2018), 346-352. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.11.010).

10.   Gholami, A., Saboonchi, A. and Alemrajabi, A.A., "Experimental study of factors affecting dust accumulation and their effects on the transmission coefficient of glass for solar applications", Renewable Energy, Vol. 112, (2017), 466-473. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.renene.2017.05.050).

11.   You, S., Lim, Y.J., Dai, Y. and Wang, C.-H., "On the temporal modelling of solar photovoltaic soiling: Energy and economic impacts in seven cities", Applied Energy, Vol. 228, (2018), 1136-1146. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.07.020).

12.   Gholami, A., Alemrajabi, A.A. and Saboonchi, A., "Experimental study of self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide and nanospray coatings in solar applications", Solar Energy, Vol. 157, (2017), 559-565. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.08.075).

13.   Gholami, A., Eslami, S., Aryan, T., Ameri, M., Gavagsaz Ghoachani, R. and Zandi, M., "A review of dust removal methods from the surface of photovoltaic panels", Mechanical Engineering, Sharif Journal, (December 2019). (https://doi.org/10.24200/j40.2019.52496.1496).

14.   Syafiq, A., Pandey, A.K., Adzman, N.N. and Rahim, N.A., "Advances in approaches and methods for self-cleaning of solar photovoltaic panels", Solar Energy, Vol. 162, (March 2018), 597-619. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.12.023).

15.   Lopes, R.A., Magalhães, P., Gouveia, J.P., Aelenei, D., Lima, C. and Martins, J., "A case study on the impact of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings on distribution transformer aging", Energy, Vol. 157, (2018), 669-678. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.05.148).

16.   Plecas, M., Gill, S. and Kockar, I., "Accelerating renewable connections through coupling demand and distributed generation", Proceedings of 2016 IEEE Electrical Power and Energy Conference (EPEC), (2016), 1-7. (https://doi.org/10.1109/EPEC.2016.7771787).

17.   Keykhah, E., Barakati, S.M. and Tavakoli, S., "Overcoming limitation of Electric Spring", Proceedings of 8th Power Electronics, Drive Systems & Technologies Conference (PEDSTC), (2017), 437-441. (https://doi.org/10.1109/PEDSTC.2017.7910365).

18.   Erdinc, O., Paterakis, N.G., Pappi, I.N., Bakirtzis, A.G. and Catalão, J.P.S., "A new perspective for sizing of distributed generation and energy storage for smart households under demand response", Applied Energy, Vol. 143, (2015), 26-37. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy. 2015.01.025).

19.   Darghouth, N.R., Wiser, R.H., Barbose, G. and Mills, A.D., "Net metering and market feedback loops: Exploring the impact of retail rate design on distributed PV deployment", Applied Energy, Vol. 162, (2016), 713-722. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.120).

20.   Good, N., Ceseña, E.A.M., Zhang, L. and Mancarella, P., "Techno-economic and business case assessment of low carbon technologies in distributed multi-energy systems", Applied Energy, Vol. 167, (2016), 158-172. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.089).

21.   Kilinc-Ata, N., "The evaluation of renewable energy policies across EU countries and US states: An econometric approach", Energy for Sustainable Development, Vol. 31, (2016), 83-90. (https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.esd.2015.12.006).

22.   Hou, J. and Feng, X., "An evaluation of China’s carbon emission reduction policies on urban transport system", Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy, Vol. 6, No. 1, (2015), 31-51. (http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jsdlp.v6i1.2).

23.   Zandi, M., Bahrami, M., Eslami, S., Gavagsaz Ghoachani, R., Payman, A., Phattanasak, M., Nahid-Mobarakeh, B. and Pierfederici, S., "Evaluation and comparison of economic policies to increase distributed generation capacity in the Iranian household consumption sector using photovoltaic systems and RETScreen software", Renewable Energy, Vol. 107, (2017), 215-222. (https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.renene.2017.01.051).

24.   Vanaga, R., Blumberga, A., Freimanis, R., Mols, T. and Blumberga, D., "Solar facade module for nearly zero energy building", Energy, Vol. 157, (2018), 1025-1034. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.04.167).

25.   Akrami, E., Khazaee, I. and Gholami, A.,"Comprehensive analysis of a multi-generation energy system by using an energy-exergy methodology for hot water, cooling, power and hydrogen production", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 129, (Oct. 2018), 995-1001. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2017.10.095).

26.   Iturriaga, E., Aldasoro, U., Terés-Zubiaga, J. and Campos-Celador, A., "Optimal renovation of buildings towards the nearly Zero Energy Building standard", Energy, Vol. 160, (2018), 1101-1114. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.07.023).

27.   Akrami, E., Gholami, A., Ameri, M. and Zandi, M., "Integrated an innovative energy system assessment by assisting solar energy for day and night time power generation: Exergetic and exergo-economic investigation", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 175, (2018), 21-32. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2018.08.075).

28.   Basiri, M. and Ebrahimi, R., "Investigation of energy consumption in dairy farm case study: Asadabad province, Hamedan", Proceedings of Conference on Emerging Trends in Energy Conservation, (2014), 1-13.

29.   Minnaert, B., Thoen, B., Plets, D., Joseph, W. and Stevens, N., "Optimal energy storage solution for an inductively powered system for dairy cows" Proceedings of 2017 IEEE Wireless Power Transfer Conference (WPTC), (2017), 1-4. (https://doi.org/10.1109/WPT. 2017.7953805).

30.   Mhundwa, R., Simon, M. and Tangwe, S., "Low-cost empirical modelling to determine cooling savings in a dairy plant using a pre-cooler", Proceedings of 2016 International Conference on the Industrial and Commercial Use of Energy (ICUE), (2016), 57-62.

31.   McCarthy, S. and Wrixon, G.T., "Practical experience of a 50 kWp photovoltaic system supplying power to a dairy farm on Fota Island, Cork, Ireland", IEE Proceedings A, Physical Science, Measurement and Instrumentation, Management and Education, Reviews, Vol. 134, No. 5, (1987), 407-412. (https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-a-1.1987.0062).

32.   Boadzo, A., Chowdhury, S.P. and Chowdhury, S., "Modeling and assessment of dairy farm-based biogas plants in South Africa", Proceedings of 2011 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, (2011), 1-8. (https://doi.org/10.1109/PES.2011.6039181).

33.   Boadzo, A., Kibaara, S.K. and Chowdhury, S., "A study on dairy farm-based hybrid renewable energy systems in South Africa", Proceedings of 2016 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM), (2016), 1-5. (https://doi.org/10.1109/PESGM.2016.7741223).

34.   "intro-Meteonorm (en)", (Online). (Available: https://meteonorm. com/en/). (Accessed: 01-Sep-2019).

35.   The national weather service, The yearbook of the National Center of Drought and Crisis Management, In Persian, The Ministry of Roads and Urban Development, (2017).

36.   Houston, C., Gyamfi, S. and Whale, J., "Evaluation of energy efficiency and renewable energy generation opportunities for small scale dairy farms: A case study in Prince Edward Island, Canada", Renewable Energy, Vol. 67, (July 2014), 20-29. (https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.renene.2013.11.040).