Polysulfone-based Anion Exchange Membranes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

Department of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

In present research work, anion exchange membranes based on quaternized polysulfone with ammonium cation moieties (QAPSF) were prepared by chloromethylation, amination and alkalization. The chloromethylated polysulfone were characterized by 1HNMR spectroscopy and functionalization degree was determined according to peak area integration. Ion transport properties (ionic conductivity, ion exchange capacity, activation energy for ion transport) and water content associated properties (water uptake, swelling ratio, hydrated number) were measured for the prepared anion exchange membranes. The ion exchange capacity for these membranes varied from 0.96 to 1.73 meq/gr while the degree of chloromethylation increased from 82% to 143%. The membrane with IEC value of 1.73 meq/gr showed the highest ionic conductivity in the range of 15.87-34.01 mS/cm at 25-80 °C. The activation energy for ion transport, water uptake and swelling ratio of this membrane were measured to be 11.99 kJ/mol, 37.41% and 14.71%, respectively which demonstrated the reasonable performance of the prepared anion exchange membranes. Based on the obtained results, prepared anion exchange membranes could be proposed as good candidates for solid alkaline fuel cells.

Keywords


1.     Merle, G., Wessling, M. and Nijmeijer, K., "Anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells: A review", Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 377, No. 1–2, (2011), 1-35.

2.     Couture, G., Alaaeddine, A., Boschet, F. and Ameduri, B., "Polymeric materials as anion-exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells", Progress in Polymer Science, Vol. 36, No. 11, (2011), 1521-1557.

3.     Wang, Y.-J., Qiao, J., Baker, R. and Zhang, J., "Alkaline polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications", Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 42, No. 13, (2013), 5768-5787.

4.     Hu, J., Wan, D., Zhu, W., Huang, L., Tan, S., Cai, X. and Zhang, X., "Fabrication of a High-Stability Cross-Linked Quaternized Poly(epichlorolydrin)/PTFE Composite Membrane via a Facile Route", ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 6, No. 7, (2014), 4720-4730.

5.     Li, X., Wang, L. and Cheng, S., "Investigation on structure and properties of anion exchange membranes based on tetramethylbiphenol moieties containing copoly(arylene ether)s", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 132, No. 8, (2015).

6.     Nonjola, P. T., Mathe, M. K. and Modibedi, R. M., "Chemical modification of polysulfone: Composite anionic exchange membrane with TiO2 nano-particles", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 38, No. 12, (2013), 5115-5121.

7.     Vinodh, R., Purushothaman, M. and Sangeetha, D., "Novel quaternized polysulfone/ZrO2 composite membranes for solid alkaline fuel cell applications", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 36, No. 12, (2011), 7291-7302.

8.     Yan, X., Wang, Y., He, G., Hu, Z., Wu, X. and Du, L., "Hydroxide exchange composite membrane based on soluble quaternized polyetherimide for potential applications in fuel cells", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 38, No. 19, (2013), 7964-7972.

9.     Zhang, S., Li, C., Xie, X. and Zhang, F., "Novel cross-linked anion exchange membranes with diamines as ionic exchange functional groups and crosslinking groups", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 39, No. 25, (2014), 13718-13724.

10.   Komkova, E. N., Stamatialis, D. F., Strathmann, H. and Wessling, M., "Anion-exchange membranes containing diamines: preparation and stability in alkaline solution",  Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 244, No. 1–2, (2004), 25-34.

11.   11.  Park, J.-S., Park, G.-G., Park, S.-H., Yoon, Y.-G., Kim, C. S. and Lee, W. Y., "Development of Solid-State Alkaline Electrolytes for Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells", Macromolecular Symposia, Vol. 249-250, No. 1, (2007), 174-182.

12.   Park, J.-S., Park, S.-H., Yim, S.-D., Yoon, Y.-G., Lee, W.-Y. and Kim, C.-S., "Performance of solid alkaline fuel cells employing anion-exchange membranes", Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 178, No. 2, (2008), 620-626.

13.   Arges, C. G., Parrondo, J., Johnson, G., Nadhan, A. and Ramani, V., "Assessing the influence of different cation chemistries on ionic conductivity and alkaline stability of anion exchange membranes",  Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 22, No. 9, (2012), 3733-3744.

14.   Lu, S., Pan, J., Huang, A., Zhuang, L. and Lu, J., "Alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells completely free from noble metal catalysts", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 105, No. 52, (2008), 20611–20614.

15.   Sh Pan, J., Li, Y., Zhuang, L. and Lu, J., "Self-crosslinked alkaline polymer electrolyte exceptionally stable at 90 [degree]C", Chemical Communications, Vol. 46, No. 45, (2010), 8597-8599.

16.   Pantamas, N., Khonkeng, C., Krachodnok, S. and Chaisena, A., "Ecofriendly and Simplified Synthetic Route for Polysulfone-based Solid-State Alkaline Electrolyte Membrane", American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 10, (2012), 1577.

17.   Wang, G., Weng, Y., Chu, D., Chen, R. and Xie, D., "Developing a polysulfone-based alkaline anion exchange membrane for improved ionic conductivity", Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 332, No. 1–2, (2009), 63-68.

18.   Zeng, L. and Zhao, T. S., "High-performance alkaline ionomer for alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells", Electrochemistry Communications, Vol. 34, (2013), 278-281.

19.   Park, A. M. and Pintauro, P. N., "Alkaline Fuel Cell Membranes from Electrospun Fiber Mats", Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 15, No. 3, (2011), B27-B30.

20.   Park, A. M., Turley, F. E., Wycisk, R. J. and Pintauro, P. N., "Electrospun and Cross-Linked Nanofiber Composite Anion Exchange Membranes", Macromolecules, Vol. 47, No. 1, (2013), 227-235.

21.   Roddecha, S., Dong, Z., Wu, Y. and Anthamatten, M., "Mechanical properties and ionic conductivity of electrospun quaternary ammonium ionomers", Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 389, (2012), 478-485.

22.   Yi, Z., Chaorong, C., Danying, Z. and Hongwei, Z., "Hybrid anion-exchange membranes derived from quaternized polysulfone and functionalized titanium dioxide", Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 177, (2015), 128-136.

23.   Zhao, Y., Pan, J., Yu, H., Yang, D., Li, J., Zhuang, L., Shao, Z. and Yi, B., "Quaternary ammonia polysulfone-PTFE composite alkaline anion exchange membrane for fuel cells application", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 38, No. 4, (2013), 1983-1987.

24.   Avram, E., Butuc, E., Luca, C. and Druta, I., "Polymers with Pendant Functional Group. III. Polysulfones Containing Viologen Group", Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A, Vol. 34, No. 9, (1997), 1701-1714.

25.   Choi, J., Byun, Y.-J., Lee, S. Y., Jang, J. H., Henkensmeier, D., Yoo, S. J., Hong, S.-A., Kim, H.-J., Sung, Y.-E. and Park, J.-S., "Poly (arylene ether sulfone) with tetra (quaternary ammonium) moiety in the polymer repeating unit for application in solid alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 39, No. 36, (2014), 21223-21230.

26.   Henkensmeier, D., Cho, H., Brela, M., Michalak, A., Dyck, A., Germer, W., Duong, N. M. H., Jang, J. H., Kim, H.-J. and Woo, N.-S., "Anion conducting polymers based on ether linked polybenzimidazole (PBI-OO)", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 39, No. 6, (2014), 2842-2853.

27.   Qiao, J., Fu, J., Liu, L., Liu, Y. and Sheng, J., "Highly stable hydroxyl anion conducting membranes poly (vinyl alcohol)/poly (acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium hloride)(PVA/PAADDA) for alkaline fuel cells: Effect of cross-linking", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 37, No. 5, (2012), 4580-4589.

28.   Li, X., Wang, L. and Cheng, S., "Investigation on structure and properties of anion exchange membranes based on tetramethylbiphenol moieties containing copoly (arylene ether) s", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 132, No. 8, (2015).

29.   Jheng, L.-c., Hsu, S. L.-c., Lin, B.-y. and Hsu, Y.-l., "Quaternized polybenzimidazoles with imidazolium cation moieties for anion exchange membrane fuel cells", Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 460, (2014), 160-170.

30.   Yan, X., Gu, S., He, G., Wu, X., Zheng, W. and Ruan, X., "Quaternary phosphonium-functionalized poly(ether ether ketone) as highly conductive and alkali-stable hydroxide exchange membrane for fuel cells", Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 466, (2014), 220-228.

31.   Li, X., Yu, Y., Liu, Q. and Meng, Y., "Synthesis and characterization of anion exchange membranes based on poly (arylene ether sulfone) s containing various cations functioned tetraphenyl methane moieties", International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 38, No. 25, (2013), 11067-11073.

32.   Li, G., Pan, J., Han, J., Chen, C., Lu, J. and Zhuang, L., "Ultrathin composite membrane of alkaline polymer electrolyte for fuel cell applications", Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 1, No. 40, (2013), 12497-12502.

33.   Pan, J., Lu, S., Li, Y., Huang, A., Zhuang, L. and Lu, J., "High-Performance Alkaline Polymer Electrolyte for Fuel Cell Applications", Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 20, No. 2, (2010), 312-319.

34.   34.  Jung, H., Fujii, K., Tamaki, T., Ohashi, H., Ito, T. and Yamaguchi, T., "Low fuel crossover anion exchange pore-filling membrane for solid-state alkaline fuel cells", Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 373, No. 1–2, (2011), 107-111.