Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.

2 Aerospace and Energy Conversion Research Center, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.


The determination of the optimum engine working conditions plays an important role in increasing engine performance and reducing exhaust emissions. The main objective of this study is to optimize the performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with aviation fuel-biodiesel-diesel blends at various engine speeds and loads using Mixture-RSM. According to the experimental tests carried on a 4-cylinder engine, the mathematical models were developed. Then, the optimization processes were defined as the six scenarios containing the consideration of performance or emission parameters or both of them. Scenario 1 shows that the higher percentage of diesel and jet fuel can improve the performance parameters of the engine; however, Scenario 2 shows that only higher percentage of diesel can improve the engine emission due to negative effect of biodiesel on the NOx emissions and negative impact of aviation fuel on the CO and HC emissions that limit the amount of biodiesel and aviation fuel in the fuel mixture. The results also show that Scenario 3 does not vary compared to Scenario 2. The optimized point for both of engine performance and emission parameters presented in Scenario 6 was calculated as D48.9B32.7J18.4 at 2526 RPM and full engine load to obtain 88.4 (kW), 337 (N.m), 255 (gr/, 0.0268 (%), 469 (ppm), 7.7 (%) brake power, torque, BSFC, CO, NOx, and HC emission, respectively.


Main Subjects

1.     Krishnamoorthi, M. and Malayalamurthi, R., "Engine characteristics analysis of chaulmoogra oil blends and corrosion analysis of injector nozzle using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy", Energy, Vol. 165, (2018), 1292-1319. (
2.     Sivaramakrishnan, K. and Ravikumar, P., "Optimization of operational parameters on performance and emissions of a diesel engine using biodiesel", International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No. 4, (2014), 949-958. (
3.     Raheman, H. and Phadatare, A.G., "Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel", Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 27, No. 4, (2013), 393-397. (
4.     Hirkude, B.J. and Padalkar, S.A., "Performance optimization of CI engine fuelled with waste fried oil methyl ester- diesel blend using response surface methodology", Fuel, Vol. 119, (2014), 266-273. (
5.     Anand, G. and Karthikeyan, B., "An investigation and engine parameters optimization of a spark ignition engine with gaseous fuels", Proceedings of 4th Dessau Gas Engine Conference, Germany, (2005).
6.     Zhang, B., JQ, E., Gong, J.K., Yuan, W.H., Zuo, W. and Li, Y., "Multi disciplinary design optimization of the diesel particulate filter in the composite regeneration process", Applied Energy, Vol. 181, (2016), 14-28. (
7.     Liu, J., Ma, B. and Zhao, H., "Combustion parameters optimization of a diesel/natural gas dual fuel engine using genetic algorithm", Fuel, Vol. 260, (2020), 116365. (
8.     Krishnamoorthi, M., Malayalamurthi, R. and Sakthivel, R., "Optimization of compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-chaulmoogra oil-diethyl ether blend with engine parameters and exhaust gas recirculation", Renewable Energy, Vol. 134, (2019), 579-602. (
9.     Saxena, V., Kumar, N. and Saxena, V.K., "Multi-objective optimization of modified nanofluid fuel blends at different TiO2 nanoparticle concentration in diesel engine: Experimental assessment and modeling", Applied Energy, Vol. 248, (2019), 330-353. (
10.   Krishnamoorthi, M., Malayalamurthi, R. and Shameer, P.M., "RSM based optimization of performance and emission characteristics of DI compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel/aegle marmelos oil/diethyl ether blends at varying compression ratio, injection pressure and injection timing", Fuel, Vol. 221, (2018), 283-297. (
11.   Singh, Y., Sharma, A., Tiwari, S. and Singla, A., "Optimization of diesel engine performance and emission parameters employing cassia tora methyl esters-response surface methodology approach", Energy, Vol. 168, (2019), 909-918. (
12.   Li, Y., Jia, M., Xu, L. and Bai, X., "Multiple-objective optimization of methanol/diesel dual-fuel engine at low loads: A comparison of reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) and direct dual fuel stratification (DDFS) strategies", Fuel, Vol. 262, (2020), 16673. (
13.   Cho, J., Park, S. and Song, S., "The effects of the air-fuel ratio on a stationary diesel engine under dual-fuel conditions and multi-objective optimization", Energy, Vol. 187, (2019), 115884. (
14.   Niu, X., Wang, H., Hu, S., Yang, C. and Wang, Y., "Multi-objective online optimization of a marine diesel engine using NSGA-II coupled with enhancing trained support vector machine", Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 137, (2018), 218-227. (
15.   Millo, F., Arya, P. and Mallamo, F., "Optimization of automotive diesel engine calibration using genetic algorithm techniques", Energy, Vol. 158, (2018), 807-819. (
16.   Montgomery, D.C., Design and analysis of experiments, John Wiley & Sons, (2008).
17.   Shirneshan, A., Samani, B.H. and Ghobadian, B., "Optimization of biodiesel percentage in fuel mixture and engine operating conditions for diesel engine performance and emission characteristics by Artificial Bees Colony Algorithm", Fuel, Vol 184, (2016), 518-526. (
18.   Buyukkaya, E., "Effects of biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics", Fuel, Vol. 89, (2010), 3099-3105. (
19.   Mistri, G.K., Aggarwal, S.K., Longman, D. and Agarwal, A.K., "Performance and emission investigations of Jatropha and Karanja biodiesels in a single-cylinder compression-ignition engine using endoscopic imaging", Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Vol. 138, (2015), 011202-011213. (
20.   Hess, M.A., Haas, M.J., Foglia, T.A. and Marmer, W.N., "Effect of antioxidant addition on NOx emissions from biodiesel", Energy & Fuels, Vol. 19, (2005), 1749-1754. (
21.   Lee, J. and Bae, C., "Application of JP-8 in a heavy duty diesel engine", Fuel, Vol. 90, (2011), 1762-1770. (
22.   Lee, J., Lee, J., Chu, S., Choi, H. and Min, K., "Emission reduction potential in a light-duty diesel engine fueled by JP-8", Energy, Vol. 89, (2015), 92-99. (
23.   Uyumaz, A., Solmaz, H., Yılmaz, E., Yamık, H. and Polat, S., "Experimental examination of the effects of military aviation fuel JP-8 and biodiesel fuel blends on the engine performance, exhaust emissions and combustion in a direct injection engine", Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 128, (2014), 158-165. (
24.   Labeckas, G. and Slavinskas, S., "Combustion phenomenon, performance and emissions of a diesel engine with aviation turbine JP-8 fuel and rapeseed biodiesel blends", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 105, (2015), 216-229. (
25.   Spadaccini, L.J. and Tevelde, J.A., "Autoignition characteristics of aircraft-type fuels", Combustion and Flame, Vol. 46, (1982), 283-300. (
26.   Spadaccini, L.J., "Autoignition characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels at elevated temperatures and pressures", Journal of Engineering for Power, Vol. 99, (1977), 83-87. (