Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purwanchal Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Dharan-08, Nepal

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran

Abstract

The Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant (GWVPP) is a power generation system designed for ultralow head and low flow water streams. Energy supply to rural areas using off-grid models is simple in design and structure and sustainable to promote electricity access through renewable energy sources in the villages of Nepal. The objective of this study is to determine the most favorable gap between the booster and main runners of a Gravitational Water Vortex Turbine (GWVT) to ensure maximum power output of the GWVPP. CFD analysis was used to evaluate the 30 mm gap between the main and booster runners, which was the most favorable gap for enhancing the plant’s power. In this study, the optimum power and economic analysis of the entire plant was conducted in the case of mass flow rates of 4 kg/s, 6 kg/s, and 8 kg/s. The system was modeled in SolidWorks V2016 and its Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis was performed utilizing ANSYS R2 2020 with varying multiple gaps between the main and booster runners to determine the most favorable gap of the plant’s runner. This research concluded that optimum power could be achieved if the distance of the main runner’s bottom position be fixed at 16.72 %, i.e., the distance between the top position of the conical basin and the top position of the booster runner. At a mass flow rate of 8 kg/s, the plant generated maximum electric energy (3,998,719.6 kWh) comparatively and economically contributed 268,870.10 USD on an annual basis.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. Dhakal, R., Bajracharya, T.R., Shakya, S.R., Kumal, B., Kathmandu, N., Khanal, K. and Ghale, D.P., "Computational and experimental investigation of runner for gravitational water vortex power plant", Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA 2017), San Diego, California, USA, (5-8 November 2017), 365-373. (https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRERA.2017.8191087).
  2. Kaygusuz, K., "Energy for sustainable development: A case of developing countries", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 16, No. 2, (2012), 1116-1126. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.11.013).
  3. Dhakal, S., Timilsina, A.B., Dhakal, R., Fuyal, D., Bajracharya, T.R., Pandit, H.P. and Nakarmi, A.M., "Comparison of cylindrical and conical basins with optimum position of runner: Gravitational water vortex power plant", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 48, (2015), 662-669. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.030).
  4. Dhakal, R., Dhakal, S., Timilsina, A.B. and Fuyal, D., "Design optimization of basin and testing of runner for gravitational water vortex power plant", Proceedings of The 2015 International Capstone Design Contest on Renewable Energy Technology, Mokpo National University, Mokpo, Korea, (07 January 2015).  (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/297967445_Design_Optimization_of_Basin_and_Testing_of_Runner_for_Gravitational_Water_Vortex_Power_Plant).
  5. Dhakal, S., Timilsina, A.B., Dhakal, R., Fuyal, D., Bajracharya, T.R., Pandit, H.P. and Amatya, N., "Mathematical modeling, design optimization and experimental verification of conical basin: Gravitational water vortex power plant", Proceedings of Dalam World Largest Hydro Conference, (2015), 1-23. (https://www.academia.edu/43393673/Mathematical_modeling_design_optimization_and_experimental_verification_of_conical_basin_Gravitational_water_vortex_power_plant?from=cover_page).
  6. Mulligan, S. and Casserly, J., "The hydraulic design and optimisation of a free water vortex for the purpose of power extraction", BE Project Report, Institute of Technology, Sligo, (2010). (https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=17970346606563119939&hl=en&as_sdt=2005)
  7. Bajracharya, T.R. and Chaulagai, R.K., "Developing innovative low head water turbine for free-flowing streams suitable for micro-hydropower in flat (Terai) regions in Nepal", Center for Applied Research and Development (CARD), Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, (2012). (https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=9996932610268160475&hl=en&oi=scholarr).
  8. Wanchat, S. and Suntivarakorn, R., "Preliminary design of a vortex pool for electrical generation", Advanced Science Letters, Vol. 13, No. 1, (2012), 173-177. (https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2012.3855).
  9. Wanchat, S., Suntivarakorn, R., Wanchat, S., Tonmit, K. and Kayanyiem, P., "A parametric study of a gravitation vortex power plant", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 805, (2013), 811-817. (https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.805-806.811).
  10. Dhakal, R., Bajracharya, T.R., Shakya, S.R., Kumal, B., Khanal, K., Williamson, S.J. and Ghale, D.P., "Notice of violation of IEEE publication principles: Computational and experimental investigation of runner for gravitational water vortex power plant", Proceedings of IEEE 6th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA), San Diego, CA, USA (2017), 365-373. (https://doi.org/10.1109/ICRERA.2017.8191087).
  11. Kayastha, M., Raut, P., Subedi, N.K. and Ghising, S.T., "CFD evaluation of performance of gravitational water vortex turbine at different runner position", Proceedings of KEC Conference, Kantipur Engineering College, Dhapakhel Lalitpur, (2019), 17-25. (https://doi.org/10.31224/osf.io/d9qn3).
  12. Ullah, R., Cheema, T.A., Saleem, A.S., Ahmad, S.M., Chattha, J.A. and Park, C.W., "Performance analysis of multi-stage gravitational water vortex turbine", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 198, (2019), 111788. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2019.111788).
  13. Ullah, R., Cheema, T.A., Saleem, A.S., Ahmad, S.M., Chattha, J.A. and Park, C.W., "Preliminary experimental study on multi-stage gravitational water vortex turbine in a conical basin", Renewable Energy, Vol. 145, (2020), 2516-2529. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2019.07.128).
  14. Wang, Y.K., Jiang, C.B. and Liang, D.F., "Investigation of air-core vortex at hydraulic intakes", Journal of Hydrodynamics, Vol. 22, No. 1, (2010), 673-678. (https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(10)60017-0).
  15. Jahangiri, M., Saghafian, M. and Sadeghi, M.R., "Numerical simulation of hemodynamic parameters of turbulent and pulsatile blood flow in flexible artery with single and double stenoses", Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 29, No. 8, (2015), 3549-3560. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-015-0752-3).
  16. Jahangiri, M., Saghafian, M. and Sadeghi, M.R., "Effects of non-Newtonian behavior of blood on wall shear stress in an elastic vessel with simple and consecutive stenosis", Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, (2015), 123-131. (https://dx.doi.org/10.13005/bpj/590).
  17. Jahangiri, M., Haghani, A., Ghaderi, R. and Hosseini Harat, S.M., "Effect of non-Newtonian models on blood flow in artery with different consecutive stenosis", ADMT Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2018), 79-86. (http://admt.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/article_538372.html).
  18. Jahangiri, M., Saghafian, M. and Sadeghi, M.R., "Effect of six non-Newtonian viscosity models on hemodynamic parameters of pulsatile blood flow in stenosed artery", Journal of Computational & Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2, (2018), 199-207. (https://dx.doi.org/10.22061/jcarme.2017.1433.1114).
  19. Sharifzadeh, B., Kalbasi, R., Jahangiri, M., Toghraie, D. and Karimipour, A., "Computer modeling of pulsatile blood flow in elastic artery using a software program for application in biomedical engineering", Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, Vol. 192, (2020), 105442. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2020.105442).