Document Type : Technical Note


1 Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P. O. Box: 15875-4413, Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Renewable Energy Research, Niroo Research Institute (NRI), Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


In this paper, an industrial dairy farm unit was taken as a case study to carry out the applicable technical assessment for the construction of a biogas plant using a combined heat and power (CHP) unit. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was applied to examine the effectiveness of the operational parameters and feed composition in the purity and production rate of biogas. Aspen Plus was used to implement the anaerobic digestion process. The results showed that any increase in the digester’s operational performance and mass rate of feedstock water led to the modification of biomethane content, but dropped in biogas mass flow rate. Moreover, an increase in the mass rate of carbohydrates, protein, and organic load rate (OLR) of feedstock reduces methane composition. Besides, increasing the rate of lipids has raised the rate of methane production and its composition.


Main Subjects

  1. George, M., Harper, J., Davy, J., Becchetti, T. and Maier, G., "Ecology and management of annual rangelands series: Livestock production", Univrsity of California Agriculture & Natural Resources: Rangelands and Grazing Livestock, (2020), 1-24. (
  2. Muller, Z. O., "Feed from animal wastes: State of knowledge", FAO Animal Production and Health Paper, (1980). (
  3. Zeb, I., Ma, J., Frear, C., Zhao, Q., Ndegwa, P., Yao, Y. and Kafle, G.K., "Recycling separated liquid-effluent to dilute feedstock in anaerobic digestion of dairy manure", Energy, Vol. 119, (2017), 1144-1151. (
  4. Kozłowski, K., Pietrzykowski, M., Czekała, W., Dach, J., Kowalczyk-Juśko, A., Jóźwiakowski, K. and Brzoski, M., "Energetic and economic analysis of biogas plant with using the dairy industry waste", Energy, 183, (2019), 1023-1031. (
  5. Akbulut, A., "Techno-economic analysis of electricity and heat generation from farm-scale biogas plant: Çiçekdaĝi case study", Energy, Vol. 44, No. 1, (2012), 381-390. (
  6. Teodorita, A.S., Dominik, R., Heinz, P., Michael, K., Tobias, F., Silke, V. and Rainer, J., Biogas handbook, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark, (2008). (
  7. International Energy Agency, "Outlook for biogas and biomethane: Prospects for organic growth", (2020) (
  8. Uddin, M.M. andWright M.M., "Anaerobic digestion fundamentals, challenges, and technological advances", Physical Sciences Reviews, (2022), 1-19 (
  9. Angelidaki, I., Chen, X., Cui, J., Kaparaju, P. and Ellegaard, L., "Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of household municipal solid waste: Start-up procedure for continuously stirred tank reactor", Water Research, Vol. 40, (2006), 2621-2628. (
  10. Reith, J.H., Wijffels, R.H. and Barten, H., Bio-methane and bio-hydrogen: Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production, Dutch Biological Hydrogen Foundation, (2003), 166. (
  11. Moestedt, J., Påledal, S.N., Schnürer, A. and Nordell, E., "Biogas production from thin stillage on an industrial scale-experience and optimisation", Energies, Vol. 6, No. 11, (2013), 5642-5655. (
  12. Ziemiński, K. and Frąc, M., "Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass: Transformations, stages and microorganisms", African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 11, No. 18, (2012). (
  13. Al-Rubaye, H., Karambelkar, S., Shivashankaraiah, M.M. and Smith, J.D., "Process simulation of two-stage anaerobic digestion for methane production", Biofuels, Vol. 10, (2019), 181-191. (
  14. Appels, L., Baeyens, J., Degrève, J. and Dewil, R., "Principles and potential of the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge", Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Vol. 34, No. 6, (2008), 755-781. (
  15. Gerardi, M.H., The microbiology of anaerobic digesters, John Wiley & Sons, (2003). (
  16. Marinescu, M., Dumitru, M. and Lăcătuşu, A.R., "Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in an artificial polluted soil", Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 41, No. 2, (2009), 157-162. (
  17. Lorenzo-Llanes, J., Pagés-Díaz, J., Kalogirou, E. and Contino, F., "Development and application in Aspen Plus of a process simulation model for the anaerobic digestion of vinasses in UASB reactors: Hydrodynamics and biochemical reactions", Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 2, (2020), 103540. (
  18. Mabalane, P.N., Oboirien, B.O., Sadiku, E.R. and Masukume, M.A., "Techno-economic analysis of anaerobic digestion and gasification hybrid system: Energy recovery from municipal solid waste in South Africa", Waste and Biomass Valorization, Vol. 12, (2021), 1167-1184. (
  19. Rasapoor, M., Young, B., Brar, R., Sarmah, A., Zhuang, W.Q. and Baroutian, S., "Recognizing the challenges of anaerobic digestion: Critical steps toward improving biogas generation", Fuel, Vol. 261, (2020), 116497. (
  20. Achinas, S., Martherus, D., Krooneman, J. and Euverink, G.J.W., "Preliminary assessment of a biogas-based power plant from organic waste in the North Netherlands", Energies, Vol. 12, No. 2, (2019), 4034. (
  21. Ravendran, R.R., Abdulrazik, A. and Zailan, R., "Aspen Plus simulation of optimal biogas production in anaerobic digestion process", Proceedings of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 702, 1st ProSES Symposium 2019, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia, (2019), 012001. (
  22. Anukam, A., Mohammadi, A., Naqvi, M. and Granström, K., "A review of the chemistry of anaerobic digestion: Methods of accelerating and optimizing process efficiency", Processes, Vol. 7, No. 8, (2019), 1-19. (
  23. Batstone, D.J. and Keller, J., "Industrial applications of the IWA anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1)", Water Science and Technology, Vol. 47, (2003), 199-206. (
  24. Angelidaki, I., Ellegaard, L. and Ahring, B.K., "A comprehensive model of anaerobic bioconversion of complex substrates to biogas", Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 63, (1999), 363-372. (;2-Z).
  25. Al-rubaye, H., Karambelkar, S., Shivashankaraiah, M.M. and Smith, J.D., "Process simulation of two-stage anaerobic digestion for methane production", Biofuels, Vol. 10, No. 2, (2017), 1-11. (
  26. Rajendran, K., Kankanala, H.R., Lundin, M. and Taherzadeh, M.J., "A novel Process Simulation Model (PSM) for anaerobic digestion using Aspen Plus", Bioresource Technology, Vol. 168, (2014), 7-13. (
  27. Harun, N., Hassan, Z., Zainol, N., Ibrahim, W.H.W. and Hashim, H., "Anaerobic digestion process of food waste for biogas production: A simulation approach", Chemical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 4, (2019), 1834-1839. (
  28. Rouse, S., Precise biogas flow measurement: Overcoming the challenges of changing gas composition, (2013). (
  29. Rico, C., Rico, J.L., Tejero, I., Muñoz, N. and Gómez, B., "Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure in pilot plant for biogas production: Residual methane yield of digestate", Waste Management, Vol. 31, No. 9-10, (2011), 2167-2173. (
  30. Morvan, T., Gogé, F., Oboyet, T., Carel, O. and Fouad, Y.A., "Dataset of the chemical composition and near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of raw cattle, poultry and pig manure", Data in Brief, Vol. 39, (2021). (
  31. Picardo, A., Soltero, V.M., Peralta, M.E. and Chacartegui, R., "District heating based on biogas from wastewater treatment plant", Energy, Vol. 180, 649-664 (2019). (
  32. Labatut, R.A., Angenent, L.T. and Scott, N.R., "Conventional mesophilic vs. thermophilic anaerobic digestion: Atrade-off between performance and stability?", Water Research, Vol. 53, (2014), 249-258. (
  33. Nges, I.A. and Liu, J., "Effects of solid retention time on anaerobic digestion of dewatered-sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions", Renewable Energy, Vol. 35, (2010), 2200-2206. (
  34. Dareioti, M.A. and Kornaros, M., "Anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of ensiled sorghum, cheese whey and liquid cow manure in a two-stage CSTR system: Effect of hydraulic retention time", Bioresource Technology, Vol. 175, (2015), 553-562. (
  35. Kumar, A. and Samadder, S.R., "Performance evaluation of anaerobic digestion technology for energy recovery from organic fraction of municipal solid waste: A review", Energy, Vol. 197. (2020). (
  36. Vavilin, V.A., Vasiliev, V.B. and Rytov, S.V., "Modelling of gas pressure effects on anaerobic digestion", Bioresource Technology, Vol. 52, No. 1, (1995), 25-32. (
  37. Mao, C., Feng, Y., Wang, X. and Ren, G., "Review on research achievements of biogas from anaerobic digestion", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 45, (2015), 540-555. (
  38. Rodriguez, C., Alaswad, A., El-Hassan, Z. and Olabi, A.G., "Waste paper and macroalgae co-digestion effect on methane production", Energy, Vol. 154, (2018), 119-125. (
  39. Kothari, R., Pandey, A.K., Kumar, S., Tyagi, V.V. and Tyagi, S.K., "Different aspects of dry anaerobic digestion for bio-energy: An overview", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 39, (2014), 174-195. (
  40. Palatsi, J., Viñas, M., Guivernau, M., Fernandez, B. and Flotats, X., "Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse waste: Main process limitations and microbial community interactions", Bioresource Technology, Vol. 102, (2011), 2219-2227. (
  41. Romero-Güiza, M.S., Vila, J., Mata-Alvarez, J., Chimenos, J.M. and Astals, S., "The role of additives on anaerobic digestion: A review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 58, (2016), 1486-1499. (
  42. Siddique, M.N.I. and Wahid, Z.A., "Achievements and perspectives of anaerobic co-digestion: A review", Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 194, (2018), 359-371. (
  43. Harris, P.W., Schmidt, T. and McCabe, B.K., "Impact of thermobaric pre-treatment on the continuous anaerobic digestion of high-fat cattle slaughterhouse waste", Biochemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 134, (2018), 108-113. (
  44. Kovács, E., Wirth, R., Maróti, G., Bagi, Z., Rákhely, G. and Kovács, K.L., "Biogas production from protein-rich biomass: Fed-batch anaerobic fermentation of casein and of pig blood and associated changes in microbial community composition", PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, No. 10, (2013), e77265. (
  45. Perle, M., Kimchie, S. and Shelef, G., "Some biochemical aspects of the anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater", Water Research, Vol. 29, No. 6, (1995), 1549-1554. (
  46. Schnürer, A. and Jarvis, Å., Mikrobiologisk handbok för biogas anläggningar, Svenskt Gastekniskt Center, (2009). (
  47. Elsayed, M., Andres, Y., Blel, W., Gad, A. and Ahmed, A., "Effect of VS organic loads and buckwheat husk on methane production by anaerobic co-digestion of primary sludge and wheat straw", Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 117, (2016), 538-547. (
  48. Daneshgar, S., Buttafava, A., Capsoni, D., Callegari, A. and Capodaglio, A.G., "Impact of pH and ionic molar ratios on phosphorous forms precipitation and recovery from different wastewater sludges", Resources, Vol. 7, No. 4, (2018). (
  49. Deublein, D., Editors, A.S., Gmbh, W.V. and Kgaa, C., "Book review biogas from waste and renewable resources: An introduction", Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4, (2008), 483-485. (