Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj, Iran.

2 Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj, Iran



In this research study, a cost-effective and reliable weather station using a microcontroller system containing instruments and sensors for measuring and recording ambient variables was designed, fabricated, and tested. The dataset recorded and stored in the meteorological system can be applied to conduct various research in the field of energy and environment, especially in solar systems. Employing a microcontroller system reduces costs and provides special features such as accessing data on the web-based spreadsheets and adding control devices. In this system, meteorological information including solar radiation, air temperature, wind velocity, and air relative humidity is measured and saved in user-defined time intervals such as 30 seconds. The total cost for measuring equipment, sensors, and microcontroller along with a data logger is about 110 USD. To demonstrate the importance of using local meteorological data, in the vicinity of the case studies, the dataset provided by the local weather station was compared with the meteorological data of two nearby national stations for one month. The results revealed that the values reported by the national stations were different from the actual values measured by the local weather station. The deviations for solar radiation, wind velocity, air temperature and humidity values were at least 5, 9, 7%, and more than 100%, respectively.


Main Subjects

  1. Duffie, J.A. and W.A. Beckman, Solar engineering of thermal processes. 4th ed., Hoboken, N.J: Wiley (2013).
  2. Meisam Moghadasi, Nima Izadyar, Amirali Moghadasi, Hossein Ghadamian, "Applying machine learning techniques to implement the technical requirements of energy management systems in accordance with iso 50001: 2018, an industrial case study", Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, (2021), 1–18. (
  3. Rafiquzzaman, M., Fundamentals of digital logic and microcontrollers. Sixth edition. ed., Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. xv. (2014)
  4. Pashchenko, A.F. and Y.M. Rassadin, "Microclimate Monitoring System Design for the Smart Grid Analysis and Constructive Parameters Estimation", IFAC-PapersOnLine, (2022), 55(9): p. 479-484. (
  5. Monteiro, M.S., et al. "University Campus Microclimate Monitoring Using IoT", Workshop on Communication Networks and Power Systems (WCNPS), (2019), (
  6. EnergyPlus. Available from:
  7. Wang, W., et al., "Benchmarking urban local weather with long-term monitoring compared with weather datasets from climate station and EnergyPlus weather (EPW) data", Energy Reports, (2021), 7: p. 6501-6514, (
  8.  Cureau, R.J., I. Pigliautile, and A.L. Pisello, "A New Wearable System for Sensing Outdoor Environmental Conditions for Monitoring Hyper-Microclimate", Sensors, (2022), 22(2): p. 502. (
  9. Meisam Moghadasi, Hossein Ghadamian, Milad Khodsiani, Mahdi Pourbafrani, "A comprehensive experimental investigation and dynamic energy modeling of a highly efficient solar air heater with octagonal geometry", Solar Energy, Volume 242, (2022), Pages 298-311, ISSN 0038-092X, (
  10. Moghadasi, M., Ghadamian, H., Moghadasi, M., Seidabadi, L. "Prediction of outlet air characteristics and thermal performance of a symmetrical solar air heater via machine learning to develop a model-based operational control scheme—an experimental study", Environ Sci Pollut Res, (2022), (
  11. Abbate, S., et al., "Deploying a Communicating Automatic Weather Station on an Alpine Glacier", Procedia Computer Science, (2013), 19: p. 1190-1195. (
  12. Nsabagwa, M., et al., "Towards a robust and affordable Automatic Weather Station", Development Engineering, (2019), 4: p. 100040. (
  13. Netto, G.T. and J. Arigony-Neto, "Automatic Weather Station and Electronic Ablation Station for measuring the impacts of climate change on glaciers", HardwareX, (2019), 5: p. e00053. (
  14. Bernardes, G.F.L.R., et al., "Prototyping low-cost automatic weather stations for natural disaster monitoring", Digital Communications and Networks, (2022), (
  15. Baseer, M.A., et al., "Performance evaluation of cup-anemometers and wind speed characteristics analysis", Renewable Energy, (2016), 86: p. 733-744. (
  16. Pham, Q.T., PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS | Other Physical Measurements, in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences (Second Edition), M. Dikeman and C. Devine, Editors. (2014), Academic Press: Oxford. p. 50-56. ISBN 978-0-12-384734-8, (
  17. Mustafa, M., et al., "Measurement of Wind Flow Behavior at the Leeward Side of Porous Fences Using Ultrasonic Anemometer Device", Energy Procedia, (2016), 85: p. 350-357. (
  18. Ligęza, P., "An investigation of a constant-bandwidth hot-wire anemometer", Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, (2009). 20(3): p. 116-121. (
  19. Blum, N.B., et al., "Measurement of diffuse and plane of array irradiance by a combination of a pyranometer and an all-sky imager", Solar Energy, (2022), 232: p. 232-247. (
  20. Peter R. Michael, D.E.J., Wilfrido Moreno, "A conversion guide: solar irradiance and lux illuminance", JOURNAL OF MEASUREMENTS IN ENGINEERING, (2020), (
  21. Adafruit, Available from:
  22. Radajewski, M., S. Decker, and L. Krüger, "Direct temperature measurement via thermocouples within an SPS/FAST graphite tool", Measurement, (2019), 147: p. 106863. (
  23. Bai, Y., et al., "Design and validation of an adaptive low-power detection algorithm for three-cup anemometer", Measurement, (2021), 172: p. 108887. (
  24. Anemometer Instructions. 2005, science first, Available from:
  25. ROHM semiconductor, Available from:
  26. Sparkfun, Available from:
  27. Sparkfun, Available from: