Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.


Floating photovoltaic solar systems offer numerous advantages, including reduced land usage, diminished water evaporation, and lowered thermal losses compared to terrestrial installations. If widely adopted, this system has the potential to generate a staggering 10,600 TWh of electricity. The widespread implementation of this technology could curtail water evaporation by approximately 30%. Floating solar power plants operate at temperatures about 20°C cooler than their terrestrial counterparts, enabling floating panels to yield up to 33.3% more energy. Furthermore, floating photovoltaic systems exhibit an 18.18% greater efficacy in curbing greenhouse gas emissions compared to their land-based counterparts. The heightened adoption of this system is driven by diverse factors, including escalating energy demand, ecological concerns, land-use constraints, and water scarcity, all contributing to sustainability. Despite the manifold benefits of these systems, there exist drawbacks associated with this technology, such as heightened panel corrosion, challenges in cleaning, and potential adverse environmental impacts that need to be addressed. This study meticulously examines the merits and challenges of floating photovoltaic systems in comparison to land-based installations through the content analysis method, meticulously categorizing pertinent research within the existing literature. Tailored approaches to cooling and cleaning, suited to the distinct installation conditions and environments of these systems, are concisely outlined. Through a comprehensive literature review and a meticulous comparison of cooling methods, it has been ascertained that the application of such strategies for floating solar plants yields an efficiency increase of 5-7% in the short term. Consequently, this study furnishes an initial guide for researchers and designers engaged in the development of both floating and land-based solar photovoltaic systems.


Main Subjects

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